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Water resource is an important basis for human survival

2021-06-29 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

给大伙推荐一篇优秀的经济paper。


1. Introduction


Water resource is an important basis for human survival and development, and an irreplaceable resource. Nowadays, many countries in the world are facing the problems of water shortage and water pollution. How to protect water resources is a major issue for the whole society. Although New Zealand is rich in water resources, it still faces more and more challenges in water resources management (snelder & hughey, 2005). In addition, people also think that water resources are inexhaustible, inexhaustible and sustainable natural resources. Therefore, New Zealand is planning to take effective measures to protect water resources, such as charging royalties to its domestic commercial users. This paper first discusses the current situation of water resources in New Zealand, and then analyzes the planning by using microeconomics theory.


2. Water resources in New Zealand


As we all know, although the earth's surface is occupied by water, it is estimated that only about 2.5% of the water is fresh water. Most of the fresh water is stored in glaciers and ice sheets in the form of ice and snow, accounting for 68.9% of the total water resources. Most of the rest are groundwater, accounting for 30.9%. Only 0.3% of the water exists in rivers and lakes as fresh water.


New Zealand has abundant water resources in snow fields, glaciers, groundwater aquifers, rivers and lakes (Heusser & van, 1994). Its water quantity and quality are among the top 10 in the world. Despite its abundant water resources, the country is facing increasing challenges in water resources management (Cao et al., 2009). In the 21st century, due to urban expansion and agriculture, the demand for water has increased dramatically. Water supply does not always meet these needs at the right time and place.


When the demand exceeds the supply (the situation in the arid areas of Eastern New Zealand is more and more serious), the competition for water resources is very fierce. These demands also peak in summer, when the water level is usually at the lowest level. With the change of rainfall and snowfall patterns, climate change makes the management of water resources more complex.


For a long time, people always think that water resource is an inexhaustible, inexhaustible and sustainable natural resource. Therefore, people regard water resources as a free resource that can be used many times. As a result, New Zealand excluded water resources from the system of national accounts. While considering the cost of products, New Zealand does not consider the intrinsic value of water resources. Therefore, new Zealanders lack a comprehensive concept of product cost while consuming water resources, resulting in relatively low water consumption prices. In addition, the development and utilization of water resources also has external non economic effects. In general, the individual cost of water consumption is far lower than the social cost. The market price can not reflect the marginal social effect of water resources. Finally, new Zealanders are consuming more and more water resources and lack of constraints on water pollution. In short, the market can not provide a correct price signal for the use of water resources. The market mechanism has lost the effectiveness of water resources allocation, leading to market failure and waste and pollution.


In the case of market failure, we must take non market mechanism measures to assist the market. In view of the negative externalities caused by the over utilization of water resources and water pollution, the New Zealand government should take measures such as taxation, direct control, emission rights sale, subsidy policy, increasing water cost and pollution cost.


3. Some facts of New Zealand's tax system


Taxation is one of the inevitable facts in life, even in New Zealand. At least the authorities here have developed a relatively easy to navigate tax system.


In addition to simplicity, New Zealand's tax system has the main attractions of predictability, fairness and minimum vulnerability. It's also a relatively favorable tax environment for your income and assets. In fact, in 2016, the United States Tax Foundation ranked New Zealand as the second largest tax entity in developed countries and the first largest individual tax entity. Taxation is a complex field, and this information is just a summary. For more information, you can seek professional advice.


The main features of New Zealand's tax system include: no inheritance tax, general capital gains tax. Although it can be applied to some specific investments, except for the property tax levied by local council and authorities, no local or state tax, no payroll tax, no social security tax, no health care tax, In addition to the very low fees charged by the accident compensation injury insurance scheme in New Zealand


So, do you have to pay taxes in New Zealand? The short answer is "yes.". Income tax and goods and services tax (GST) are the way we fund services for the benefit of all new Zealanders.


Not everyone in New Zealand needs to file a personal tax return, but you need to know if you do. If you have overseas income, or part of it arrives through the tax year, you have to file a return. The tax year is from April 1 to March 31. In other cases, you have to submit a return. Please check it on the tax website.


Therefore, in fact, most new arrivals need to report in the first year.


Learn about the tax liability of immigrants on the website of IRD. There is also a handy "top 10 facts" guide that you should check. If you are buying or starting a business, you need to know a lot about tax obligations. Information about the enterprise can be found on the website of the tax bureau. There are also regular seminars you can attend to learn more about New Zealand's business tax.


The highest personal tax rate in New Zealand is 33% of income over NZ $70000. At the other end of the scale, the tax rate on income up to $14000 was 10.5 per cent. Companies and enterprises are taxed at a uniform tax rate of 28%.


Any possible comprehensive capital gains or land taxes are ruled out by the current KMT led government.


New Zealand also taxes consumption, known as the goods and services tax (GST). This is a flat rate tax. At present, 15% of all purchases have been increased. However, you do not pay GST for housing rentals and financial services. Businesses can recover the commodity taxes they pay as input costs.


A commodity tax at the same rate is simpler than the system used in many other countries because similar taxes apply at different levels in different products and services.


You may find yourself a tax resident in New Zealand and elsewhere. In this case, if both countries tax the global income of their residents, your income may be taxed twice.


New Zealand tries to minimize this possibility by providing a credit for income paid overseas and paying New Zealand tax at the same time. In addition, New Zealand has signed agreements with 39 major trading and investment partners to eliminate double taxation.


4. Deeply analyze the economic rationality of charging commercial users


The answer to this question is absolutely yes, because it is necessary to charge commercial users for the use of water in New Zealand. The problem of market failure has been discussed in the second part of this paper. The author believes that the New Zealand government should take measures such as taxation, direct control, emission rights sale, subsidy policy, increase water charges, pollution costs and so on. In this way, new Zealanders who make excessive use of water resources and cause water pollution should bear the cost of excessive use of water resources and cause water pollution, and narrow the gap between the social cost and personal cost of water resources. In fact, commercial users have used most of the whole water resources. In addition, they do attribute many of the reasons to water pollution caused by factory emissions. Then, the New Zealand government can adjust the problem of water resources over utilization and water pollution from many aspects.


From the perspective of microeconomic theory, the New Zealand government can levy water use fees from commercial users, and transform the externality of water use into the internal cost of water users such as commercial users. At the same time, the New Zealand government can promote these commercial users to choose appropriate resource-saving technology, pollution control technology and develop some new workflow, so as to reduce pollution more effectively by charging high royalties to commercial users. Therefore, the New Zealand government can reduce costs, save water resources, reduce water pollution and improve social benefits. Water resources concession can actively intervene in market economic activities, control and induce the rational allocation of resources, adjust the relationship between supply and demand, so as to promote the effective role of market mechanism. In addition, the New Zealand government can also make use of the taxes levied on business users to compensate the victims whose daily life is partially disturbed or damaged to a certain extent by relevant enterprises. Therefore, while considering the above advantages, it is necessary and appropriate to levy New Zealand water use fees on commercial users. In other words, from the perspective of microeconomic theory, the New Zealand government is right to charge commercial users royalties for the use of New Zealand water because they use most of it.


5. Conclusion


New Zealand is rich in water resources, but it is facing more and more challenges in water resources management. Therefore, a variety of effective measures should be taken to strengthen the management of water resources. Among them, it is wise for the New Zealand government to charge commercial users for using most of New Zealand's water resources, causing water pollution. By collecting royalties from these enterprises, the New Zealand government can promote them to come up with more advanced technologies to reduce water waste and water pollution.


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