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Gender Disparity in Employment

2021-05-26 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

  Gender disparity in employment refers to a condition where one gender is more favored than the other in workplaces. It continues to prevail in traditional and modern society, which has been linked to racism and stereotypes of women in society. The female gender from minority communities has been subjected to poor working conditions and other unsuitable payments since they are not treated as equals of the dominant communities. Also, it is always challenging for women to find jobs compared to men because of the existing traditional stereotypes directed towards the female gender in society. The essay explores how gender disparity in employment has been brought about by racism, traditional roles of women, and human resource management policies, and proposes some solutions  to combat against gender disparity, based on a discussion of what gender disparity is and why it exists in the daily life.

Reasons for Gender Disparity

Racism has been promoting gender disparity in employment because most of the black women find it challenging to secure top-level jobs which attract better payments due to the popular notion that they are not competent enough to hold the position.  In American history, the African Americans were subjected to harsh living conditions because they were believed to be of low class compared to other communities in the region. Most African Americans were subjected to low payments and women from the minority groups were not given any opportunity to take active roles in employment platforms in society.  D. Watkins claims that most of the African Americans were subjected to illiteracy levels which made them be kicked out in major employment opportunities which attracted only the elite and educated members in the society(78). And most of the African American women were not given an opportunity to work since most of the tasks were allocated to men who earning better wages compared to women who worked under a similar working environment. Men from the African American community stood a better chance compared to females in the community because at times women were expected to take care of the family and never got an opportunity to undertake learning activities (Severini, Felici & Ferracuti 104). Although the American constitution promotes gender equality, the cases of gender disparity in employment are experienced due to lack of proper reporting channels and economic pressures. So such cases of gender disparity in minority groups end up unsolved by the relevant authorities.

Stereotypes of women connected with traditional culture is another factor that influences gender disparity in employment. Most of the cultures do not value the contribution made by women in the areas of economy. The same phenomena have been transferred to employment setting and thus males are given a better chance of development than women on grounds that culture values contribution made by men in different sectors in the economy (Jane 34). At times women are considered to be low productive and less aggressive and thus they are subjected to low payments in the society. According to Fitzsimmons, Callan and Paulsen, most employers argue that women do not have sufficient exposure and experience because of the traditional roles attributed to women (250). In most societies, women were supposed to look after the family and undertake various home chores while men were supposed to look for employment opportunities as a way of getting resources to feed the family. Based on the traditional roles many women find it hard to acquire suitable terms of employment compared to their male counterparts. Even in modern society women are still facing a difficulty to achieve full equity in workplaces because they are viewed as less competent compared to males. And although women have started taking active roles in various government departments and in running the country, they still find it challenging to be paid equally compared to their male counterparts. Although massive movements of feminism have been on the rise in the society to promote females so as they can match males, employment disparity continues to hit the labor market because most of the women are subjected to low pay scales. Because of this culture, it is believed that many women tend to receive low wages and limited growth opportunities because they are viewed as non-core decision-makers in the community. The payment structure of women is different than men in many organizations because people are still influenced under the culture that women should not earn more than men. The element of male domination over the society keeps women in bondages because even at work they come second after males. Thus, pay and other work benefits tend to be more received by men than women.

Gender disparity in employment has been reinforced when human resource department of companies put gender disparity into practice. Stereotypes of women in terms of expected roles and activities have continued to be manifested in workplaces, leading to gender disparities in employment. In most organizations, human resource policies do not promote equality based on competence and level of experience. In fact, most of the human resource policies employed do not give women an opportunity to be leaders on grounds that men are always made to lead as they have abilities to endure difficult situations ( Van Doorn 900). Lack of equal views of men and women in human resource is boosting equality between male and female workers, which continue to increase the gender disparity gap in employment. Women are finding it not easy to be promoted to the same position because men have had a natural advantages in the eyes of employers.  It is partly related to the social view that men have been shouldered the responsibility to provide resources to their families.

 

 

Proposed Solutions

 In order to guarantee equal employment opportunities for minority races, it must be achieved through effective legal systems with more specific rules about racial discrimination.  One powerful measure is the perfection of law. Although the U.S. have enacted laws to strive for equality between different races, there are still many flaws. Although legislation and legal aid are intended to reduce income inequality between men and women in employment, there have been few signs of improvement in the past years (Kemp and Beck 324). The government should further perfect employment laws, and improve the corresponding policies and regulations related to minority races. At the same time, the law stipulates the legal responsibility of the employers that implements sex discrimination towards  minority groups in employment. In particular, punitive compensation liability has a stronger deterrent effect on recruiters, so as to reduce the possibility of employment discrimination. The employer shall be liable for compensation for job seekers who have suffered racial discrimination as a result. Within such laws, strict and severe punishment for illegal gender biases in enterprises makes the opportunity cost of sex discrimination far greater than the benefits, restricting the enterprise from discriminating against female employees. Those could guarantee various rights of minority female in employment, and provide a fair employment environment for female employees in the long run.

The company is supposed to promote a corporate culture of diversity with gender equality, and a work environment free of discrimination. Now, employment diversity has been harmed when human resource department determines the hiring process, pay, promotion ,and training. Company should recognize the importance of female employees for the organizational diversity. The board diversity in terms of gender issue impacts Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and a sustainable model (Francesca 343). It requires various channels to protect the rights female employees and diversity. Given the hidden nature of sexism in employment, it is currently difficult to punish discriminatory acts by employers. Therefore, it is recommended to set up a special evaluation and supervision agency of gender equality issues. There could be an organization established by enterprises to deal with discrimination incidents, respond to complaints in a timely manner, and punish employees who commit discrimination. So, a special Committee for the protection of equal employment opportunities could be set up to promote the standardization, and institutionalization of discovering discriminatory behavior. It can conduct regular inspections on the implementation of the gender employment ratio of the recruiters. Its other main responsibilities include reviewing the recruitment advertisements of employers and the legality of internal rules and regulations related to employment rights. It is also receiving complaints from job seekers against discrimination in employment by employers, and forcing them to change their employment decisions and imposing penalties. Also, a proper proportion of female in management is realized by it to discover outstanding female leaders. In addition, welfare of female should be ensured with the labor unions, such as providing flexible working hours and working places for pregnant and lactating women, and setting up family activity days or nursing leave for working parents, so that working parents can better balance work and family.

To eliminate these root causes of gender discrimination, women themselves should have a strong belief in their own ability. There is a lack of an equal gender atmosphere in society. In the face of fierce competition for employment, many women are prone to fear under the influence of employment discrimination.  The world economy fails to remove restrictions over women 's development and most of women still held low-paying, and menial jobs  (Meyer 351). When facing  such problems, women must overcome inferiority complex, and eliminate psychological self-discrimination. The cultivation of women's own abilities and the overall improvement of their qualities are also crucial. They should adhere to self-esteem, self-confidence, and trust themselves. A more inclusive environment of workplace would help women to recognize their full potential in line with a gender mainstreaming (GM) approach (Francesca 343). Then they can have sufficient self-confidence to play their own advantages in competition as well as men. So they must dare to compete and overcome inferior mental states such as inferiority, and cowardice, and prove their own value with excellent performance and change the incorrect perception of women by society and employers. In addition, they should also highlight women's advantages in patience, resilience, emotional control, and interpersonal relationships. Recolonizing of female traits and advantages, such as in decision-making and executive management, can achieve the effect that men can not achieve, thereby maintaining the female value in the work place.

To eliminate gender discrimination, in addition to strengthening legislation,  promote a corporate culture of diversity, and establishing their confidence, it is more important to improve women’ awareness of gender equality. Women can also fight against employment by gaining more understanding of the factors that discriminate against women. Gender discrimination in employment is widespread, and it is an indisputable fact that the labor market does not provide women with the same number and quality of employment opportunities as men. For women in the workplace, they need to collect more relevant information of rights violations, increase vigilance, and protect their rights from discrimination with their own actions. When seeking employment, women need to know more background information about industries and enterprises, and be cautious about some industries that suffer from employment discrimination, such as high-tech companies of IT and government departments.  They can also learn to identify gender discrimination in recruit in terms of recruitment advertisements, the proportion of female employees in management, company culture and atmosphere, interview questions, etc. The details of labor contracts and agreements should also be paid attention to.  

The lack of racial equality, traditional stereotype of woman, and the constraints of human resource departments together explain major obstacles to women ’s equal employment. Traditional views of women should not be used in the workplace because they tend to devalue women as they were traditionally viewed to be limited in family who have the responsibility of raising children. Society should subject both men and women to equal opportunities as one way of limiting racism and any other form of discrimination. To solve this problem, it is necessary to correct the lack of current legal provisions and use economic leverage to adjust. Ultimately gender disparity in employment is a challenge that needs to be addressed in a more proactive manner by awakening women’ s confidence and their awareness of gender equality, improving women’ s competitiveness in the labor market.


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