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Worldly philosophy

2020-09-22 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

philosophy,philosophy代写,作业代写,北美代写,代写

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Worldly philosophy,文章讲述环顾当今世界,它变得越来越全球化。同时,还会出现更多问题,例如商品的流动,思想和人员的流动,我们需要加以考虑。在这里,我将基于罗伯特·海尔布隆纳(Robert Heilbroner)着名的《世俗哲学家》一书,着重探讨经济问题。在这本书中,他介绍了许多伟大的经济学家和理论家,他们关于财富创造和分配的言论和思想对社会产生了重大影响,例如亚当·斯密,托马斯·马尔萨斯。在上一章中,他提出了一个令人担忧的问题,即在当今全球化的世界中是否存在世俗哲学的任何地方。

 

  Looking around the present-day world, it becomes more and more global. Meanwhile, more issues such as the movement of goods, ideas and people appear and we need to get them considered. Here, I would focus on problems of economy based on a famous book called the worldly philosophers written by Robert Heilbroner. In this book, he introduces a lot of great economists and theorists whose words and thoughts concerning the creation and distribution of wealth has had a major impact on society such as Adam Smith, Thomas R. Malthus. At the last chapter, he puts forward a worrying problem whether there is any place for worldly philosophy in the modern, globalizing world.

  Before I give my viewpoint to this problem, I will sketch some understanding of me about worldly philosophy and find out the way in which worldly philosophy, globalization, and the international governance institutions such as the monetary and trade regimes relate to one another. After I read the book the worldly philosophers, As far as I am concerned, Worldly philosophers are a kind of economists who have changed the history, philosophers who concern themselves with economics. That is to say, they have used economic theories to influence the whole world and have made a great contribution to the world by dedicating themselves to economics. Worldly philosophy means economic, concerning the need of the social public interests. It can be considered as a science and it need people to take it seriously and study it wholeheartedly. The results of its study are closely related to interests of people. The aim of it is to study various kinds of economic activities, all kinds of relevant economic ties, economic operation and development at various stages of human society. In modern, globalizing world, the monetary and trade regimes are very important and necessary to support a globalizing capitalist economy. Firstly, they make the globalization of a liberal market economy possible in the first instance because they promote policy coordination. The regimes are set up to meet needs of government in countries around the world and let them to adapt international trade and international payments. It can establish principles and make measures so that currency can come into play. If it doesn't have any regimes existing today, we can't realize globalization between countries. Secondly, the regimes are necessary because every country needs a fair transaction and it plays a role to supervise and guarantee the fair distribution of benefits. At the beginning of the globalization, it didn't have any international governance institutions and there was a lack of standardization in the international system at that time. Revolt in the international system against a global economy characterized by open markets, unrestricted capital flows, and the activities of multinational firms appears repeatedly in the guise of trade protection, closed economic blocs, and various kinds of cheating. Individual nations and powerful groups within nations that believe the world economy functions unfairly and to their disadvantage, or who wish to change to benefit themselves to the detriment of others, are an ever-present threat to the stability of the system (Robert Gilpin, 2000). Many developing countries have already been welcome to the ideas of globalization, but are wary of the realities as well. For instance, on November 16 of 2000, during a speech made by Nelson Mandela in the British Museum, he said that they welcomed to follow the course of the globalization. It was inevitable and irreversible. However, he said, if globalization was created to realize true peace and stabilization around the world, it must be a process benefiting all. It can't allow the most politically and economically powerful countries to become a dominant role and to weaken other weak countries surrounding them. It should not be allowed to drain the wealth of smaller countries towards the larger ones, or to increase inequality between richer and poorer regions (Anup, 2006). Therefore, the major point to realize globalization is a fair environment which these regimes can make.

Next, I will talk about the regimes managed by the IMF and GATT/WTO. Here I will take WTO as an example to discuss its regimes. The World Trade Organization is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade, offering a place to carry on negotiations and settle disputes. Its regimes are complex, but it sets up a framework for trade policies and follows several principles. The first one is non-discrimination. It has two key components which are principle of MFN treatment and principle of national treatment. The former one requires that each member state of WTO have to apply the same conditions with other member states on all trade. The latter one means that import goods should be regarded as good as the goods produced at home. The second principle is reciprocity. It reflects a wish limiting a scope in case of the appearance of free-riding because of principle of MFN. It also stands for a desire to obtain the opportunity to open foreign market. But it is necessary to negotiate to reach the most benefits. The third principle is binding and enforceable commitments. When one party intends to make little or no compromise in negotiating with the other party and this party can't meet a satisfactory level after negotiation, this principle can settle down these kinds of problem. The fourth principle is transparency. It requires that every member state of WTO should disclosure their trade rules and the rules changed every now and then. The rules that haven't been published shouldn't been put into effect, what's more, relevant international agreements which WTO members have taken part in should be published and informed WTO because they might influence national trade policies. The last principle is safety valves. Governments can restrict trade in some particular circumstances. In some people's eyes, the setting-up of WTO benefits the countries on Global South in which most developing countries such as African countries lie. Because one aim of WTO is to make more positive efforts to ensure that developing countries especially the least developed countries can obtain appropriate shares and interest when their level of economic development considered in the rising of international trade. Only in this way, can WTO establish integrated multilateral trade systems. However, in some field, the countries on Global North keep initiative. Conventions would also consistent with the mainstream of international economic. As far as I am concerned, when we judge whether GATT/WTO regimes would protect interests of developed countries at the cost of developing countries, a key standard is the original intentions of rules of GATT/WTO. At the same time, we should realize changes of national strength of each country. In the different periods of development of international trade, countries which have the situation under control would change. Therefore, we should weigh different benefits from GATT/WTO to different countries in the light of development of the world. For example, with more and more developing countries taking part in WTO, especially, it will dramatically promote a position of stature and prestige of developing countries in WTO when China joins in it. Following the 2008 financial crisis, some changes have been made in the global financial or trade regimes to better reflect the interests of countries in the Global South. Facing the financial crisis, WTO made three emergency measures to make international trade stable. First, it accomplished trade facilitation negotiations fast. WTO members reported regularly the implementation of trade facilitation to WTO every half a year. Second, it established global safeguard mechanism of trade. WTO members should report the information of its own imports, changes of tariff and anti-dumping measures to WTO every week. Third, all WTO members promised to bound current levels of open trade and wouldn't take any new measures of trade restrictions. They would report implementation to WTO every two years. To countries on the Global South, International Monetary Fund (IMF) had provided bailout funds to counties like Ukraine and Iceland. The World Bank also had provided massive bailout funds to developing countries. As for WTO, it also had taken some measures to help developing countries. When the financial crisis hit in 2008, WTO had focused more on Mobilizing Aid in 2009 and planned to hold a second global Mobilizing Aid meeting. The aim of Mobilizing Aid was to improve independent participation of developing countries in the process to accept aids, strengthening the supervision of implementation of foreign aid determining effectiveness of some indicators measuring the aid activities and developing trade capacity of developing countries. After all, in the current situation where all countries in the world stayed in the same boat to overcome the financial crisis, it was in the best fundamental interests of developed countries to strengthen developing countries, especially the trade capacity and trade infrastructure of the least developed countries. What's more, this financial crisis provided the possibility of the Doha Round negotiations' success. The Doha Round negotiation can promote global economic progress especially poorer countries through a more level trade field. From this point of view, changes have been made in the global financial or trade regimes to better reflect the interests of countries in the Global South.

  After introducing worldly philosophy and the economic situation of our modern, globalizing world, let me return the question whether there is any place for worldly philosophy in today's world. Many people's answer are no, even the attitude of Robert heilbroner is skeptical, worrying and pessimistic. In his book, he wrote a lot of worldly philosophers, he gave a simple but comprehensive explanation of ideas of these great economists. He gave a picture of their lives and economic history to us. This guide is designed to supplement the book in order to instruct students in unfamiliar basic concepts, such as mercantilism, as well as in period of historical development in the social sciences, notably the scientific revolution, Renaissance, commercial revolution, and the Great Depression (Robert Louis, 1999). At the last of his book, he asked a question at the end such as "are we seeing the end of Worldly Philosophers?" The reason why he raised this question is that the field of economic is becoming more and more specialized. Very few economists insist to know all aspects of our world and to figure out how the various components of an economy such as land, labor and capital are intertwined with each other. He thought that only in this way, can economists become worldly philosophers and they make the worldly philosophy existing in our today's world. Here, I will give my arguments to support my view. Firstly, I don't think that professionalization of economy could cause the end of worldly philosophy. The modern world is complex and it is impossible to figure out all aspects of our world. Even in the times of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, they can't know about everything in their world. For example, Adam Smith was unable to predict how factory systems would change following revolutionary discoveries such as the steel-making process, which replaced the lowly pin factory(Robert Louis, 1953). What's more, David Ricardo also didn't predict the improvements of agricultural synthesis productivity in the century of 19. Secondly, I think whether there is worldly philosophy depends by the future. We can't judge whether a theory brought up in the present era is right when we are in the time. Because everything will change as time goes on, so will the definition of worldly philosophy. For example, Charles Fourier who was written in the book the worldly philosophers was considered as a madman in his times. However, he is thought as a great economist at present. Therefore, maybe someone who we even don't know could also become a great economist in the future. We should look the question in the light of its development. So I don't agree that worldly philosophy would end. Thirdly, specialization coupled with strong competitive pressures within academic leads to a situation in which academics often feel that they just do not have time to ponder broad issues and learn even basic simple facts outside their specialty (Robert J and Virginiam M, 2010). However, narrow specialization has its unique advantages. It can make for the improvement of science, at least along directions that have been shown by earlier visionaries who did not specialize so narrowly. More importantly, the spirit of cooperation has tapped into everywhere around the world. Maybe one person is only good at his knowledge field which is economics, but he can accomplish a work with other people together. The people could refine on sociology, ethics, political science and so on. Perhaps it is right to say that there are not any worldly philosophers in modern society, even in the future. But worldly philosophy wouldn't end. Fourthly, since globalization has been quite mature, one aspect of economy might influence a whole world. A small found in economy might become worldly philosophy like the influence of financial crisis in 2008. At first, it just came out in America. Then, it has swept the globe. Fifthly, Robert Louis Heilbroner has emphasized that worldly philosophy was in a pretty important position in our world in his book. Another reason why I think there is still a place for worldly philosophy is that our world would become disorderly and unsystematic if worldly philosophy doesn't exist. Since our today' world is still peaceful and love, there is no doubt that there is a place for worldly philosophy in this world.

  Although my attitude is optimistic towards this question, we still should take the problem seriously since it is true that there are few worldly philosophers like Marx today. It is worth to think about changes of this world.  

 

 

                       work cited

1、Robert Gilpin, “The Challenge of Global Capitalism:The World Economy in the 21st Century”,2000,Available online,

http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i6778.html

2、Anup Shah, "Criticisms of Current Forms of Free Trade", March 2006, Available online, http://www.globalissues.org/article/40/criticisms-of-current-forms-of-free-trade

3、Robert Louis Heilbroner, "The Worldly Philosophers”, 1953, Available online,

http://www.cliffsnotes.com/literature/w/the-worldly-philosophers/about-the-worldly-philosophers

4、Robert J. Shiller and Virgina M. Shiller, "Economists as Worldly

Philosophers", 2010, Available online, https://www.aeaweb.org/aea/2011conference/program/retrieve.php?pdfid=490       

 

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