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The rise of capitalism

2020-09-21 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

capitalism,philosophy代写,作业代写,北美代写,代写

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- The creed of journalists,文章讲述马克斯·韦伯(Max Weber)撰写的《新教伦理与资本主义精神》在宗教与资本主义兴起之间有着深刻而深刻的见解,在许多领域都是无可争议的杰作。与经济基础决定上层建筑的马克思主义著名理论相反,韦伯创造性地提出,改革后诞生的新教徒,特别是英国新教徒,孕育了资本主义的精神,正是这种精神在资本主义的产生和发展中发挥了至关重要的作用。他进一步解释说,以商业活动形式存在的资本主义已经以各种形式存在于社会中,例如在巴比伦,古埃及,中国和印度。但是,由于缺乏这种精神,这些社会中的资本主义无法完全发展成为真正的资本主义,并与理性的正式自由劳动组织联系起来。


The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism written by Max Weber is an indisputable masterpiece in many fields for its profound and insightful views on the relation between religion and the emergence of capitalism. Contrary to the famous theory of Marxism that the economic base determines the superstructure, Weber creatively puts forward that the Protestantism, England protestant in particular which comes into being after Reformation, gives birth to the spirit of capitalism and it is exactly this kind of spirit that has played a vital role in the emergence and development of capitalism. He further explains that capitalism in the shape of mercantile operations has existed in various form of society such as in Babylon, Ancient Egypt, China and India. However, due to the lack of the spirit, capitalism in those societies cannot fully forge ahead into genuine capitalism associate with rational organization of formally free labor.

Weber has commented that ‘the impulse to acquisition, pursuit of gain, of money, of the greatest possible amount of money, has in itself nothing to do with capitalism… unlimited greed for gain is not in the least identical with capitalism, and is still less in its spirit. Capitalism may even be identical with the restraint, or at least a rational tempering, of this irrational impulse. But capitalism is identical with the pursuit of profit, and forever renewed profit, by means of continuous rational, capitalistic enterprise’ (2001:32). What stands behind this impulsion is its core concept—calling. This concept means that the only way of individual existence directed by God is to undertake his duties and responsibilities correspondent to his position in a society rather than to surpass secular morality through mortification. It underlines individual’s arduous work and performance of duties as a result of Reformation.

The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism are not identical, because they appear in different periods of human civilization. However, the essence of the latter one is embedded in the doctrines of protestant such as frugality of living, industrious work, personal credit, reasonable profiting and the full use of time. ‘Man is dominated by the making of money, acquisition as the ultimate purpose of his life. Economic acquisition is no longer subordinated to man as the means for the satisfaction of his material needs’ (Weber 2001: 18). The strict mortification is conducive to the accumulation of wealth of a society; the restrictions imposed on consumption makes the productive investment possible and the idea of ‘calling’ that engaging in certain occupation is for the increase of God’s glory does good to the reasonable labor distribution.

Besides, ‘the Reformation meant not the elimination of the Church’s control over everyday life, but rather the substitution of a new form of control for the previous one’ (Weber 2001: 4). Protestant, rebelling against privilege and advocating rationality and reason, requests that all activities should be arranged in a rational way. It is of great help for the socialized production. In general, Weber has found the inherent relation between religion and the emergence of capitalism despite some defects in his methodology.  

 

Bibliography

 

Weber, Max, translated by Parsons, Talcott. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London: Routledge, 2001.

 

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