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Background of American Revolution

2020-09-21 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

American Revolution,History代写,作业代写,北美代写,代写

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- The creed of journalists,文章讲述1775年到1783年,美国独立战争也被称为美国独立战争。它始于在列克星敦与英国人的第一次战斗,并以签署巴黎条约而告终。美国独立战争不仅是一场民族独立战争,也是一场伟大的资产阶级革命。它的胜利使大英帝国的殖民体系瓦解,并成为世界其他殖民地的榜样。

American Revolutionary is also known as American War of independence, from 1775 to 1783. It began with the first fight against British in Lexington and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. American Revolutionary was not only a national independent war, but also a great bourgeois revolution. Its victory disintegrated the colonial system of the British Empire, and exampled for other colonies else in the world.

1. Background of American Revolutionary

1.1 Preconditions—formation of American nation and awakening of national consciousness

After developing for over one hundred years, trade ties among British colonies in the North America had become more and more close and strengthened. Especially with the development of capitalist industry and commerce, great improvement had shown in transportation of the colonies. Building Road and establishing postal system enhanced the economic tie which had already been stable. Therefore, integrated domestic market gradually came into being. At that time science and culture had developed little by little. They had their own institutions of higher education and newspapers. English had been the common language of immigrants from all other parts of the world, hence people’s culture and customs had gradually integrated. A nation which shared the common language, location, common economic life and the common psychological quality in the performance of the common cultural—American nation had begun to form.

1.2 Root cause—sharpening contradiction between North American development of capitalism and British colonial domination

British established its first colony in Virginia in 1607. After more than two hundred years, there were thirteen colonies in the Atlantic coast of North America. During that time, a large quantities of immigrates settled in North America, most of them were British, and Europeans and many African slaves, who devoted themselves to the exploitation of North America.      

The ruling system of colonies was in accordance with the British system of government. Every colony had its own governor and parliament. The governor on behalf of Britain dominated the whole colony, controlling the administrative, economic and military authority. Although North America had formed its uniformed market, there existed various economic sectors. At that time, capitalist economy was the mainstream of economic development. The industry and commerce had greatly developed in the north, and plantation economy was prosperous in the south. In order to acquire the controlling right of North America, British and France fought for seven years (1756-1763). British had to face its fiscal difficulties, though it won the wars finally and controlled most parts of North America. Therefore, British government constantly increased taxes of the colonies and implemented coercion policies, such as the Stamp Duty Ordinance and Townshend Acts.

North America was regarded as British forever producing area and commodity market, thus British stifled its economic growth and amassed more wealth from it. People under colonial rule were more and more dissatisfied with British exploitation. The contradictions between them were increasingly sharpening, finally leading to the outbreak of war.

1.3 Ideological basis—enlightenment thought

North American democratic atmosphere provided external social condition for the dissemination of enlightenment thought. People there were eager for freedom and their enterprising spirit provided inherent power for the dissemination of enlightenment thought. Shortly before the American Revolutionary War, the enlightenment thought had gone deep into the masses. When Britain imposed unfair laws upon colonies, there were widespread uprisings against it.

1.4 Blasting fuse—the Boston Tea Party

Boston Tea Party was an incident that citizens in Boston struggled against the British East India Company monopolizing tea trade. In 1773, in order to pump the stored tea, the British government gave the patent for selling tee without high taxes to the British East India Company, which roused the great indignation of people. People in New York, Philadelphia and Charleston refused to upload the tea. Samuel Adams led a group of about 150 person, called “Sons of Liberty”. All the members dressed up as Indians and sneaked into three boats which were full of goods and tea. They destroyed all the goods and pour all the tea into sea. This incident was acclaimed by many citizens. However, the British government shut down the Boston Port until they paid off the money of tea, and drove warships into colonies. Benjamin Franklin declared that he would like to pay for them, which was regarded as a provocation against the British government (Greene& Pole, 2008).

2. Process of American Revolutionary War

2.1 1. The first stage

The first stage was the strategic defensive stage, from 1775 to 1778, when the battle advantage laid with British. After the first fight in Lexington, British forces took the initiative and intended to extinguish the revolutionary flames of colonies. Its strategy was to control the eastern coastal of North America by naval force, and let land force drive from Canada and New York, isolating the New England Colonies which were the most unshaken against British, then destroy other colonies one by one. There were five big battles in this stage respectively happened in Boston, Canada, New York, Trenton, Princeton and Saratoga. Battle of Saratoga was a turning point in the American Revolution (Black, 1991).

2.2 The second stage

From 1779 to 1781 was the second stage which went into the stage of stalemate, marked by the victory of Battle of Saratoga, when the army of North America began to beat back. After two years fighting, British forces were suffered heavy losses. In the north battlefield, it was unable to organize big attacks anymore except small battles. Because of many years of price war, tax and national debt increased day by day to plug the empty of finance, thus anti-war sentiments ran fairly high. On the contrary, America had gradually stood firm, getting more and more international supports. However, the situation was comparatively good. Continuous wars made its economy out at the elbows. In this stage, American was also unable to organize attack and strategic center had turned to the south.   

2.3 The third stage

The third stage was the strategic counteroffensive stage, from 1781 to 1783. After the stage of stalemate for three years, British had to give up the trying to control the south. In April 1781, when General Cornwallis retreated into Virginia, the whole battlefield situation had fundamentally changed. American forces turned to strategic counteroffensive. After the Battle of Yorktown, battle in North America had basically ended. On third September 1783, the delegate of British king signed the Treaty of Paris in Versailles and officially recognized the United States of America, thus America was completely independent.

3. Reasons for American Revolutionary War

3.1 Great contribution of people in North America

Basic reason for the war’s victory lies in the essence the whole war reflects, that is the power of the masses is mighty. In order to gain more fiscal revenue, the British government constantly increased the taxes of colonies and inhumanly exploited people there. People under its brutal colonial rule had no choice but fought for their nation.    

3.2 Formation of American nation

America nation is a tenacious nation who has the strong sense of national pride. They had faith in future and had the courage to bring forth new ideas, which made them feel different from the “old continent”, which provided a powerful subjective condition for this revolutionary war.

3.3. Dissemination of Enlightenment thought

 Under the influence of the Enlightenment, all the advanced ideas was spreading to North America, such as the democratic thought, the doctrine of "separation of powers". People in North America borrowed thoughts from British and France and blended them with their own situation. Shortly before the American Revolutionary War, the enlightenment thought had gone deep into the masses. When British imposed unfair laws upon colonies, there were widespread uprisings against it.

3.4 Washington’s excellent military commanding talent

  During the process of American Revolutionary, the role which George Washington played was indispensable. Under his commanding, American forces had won many battles.

3.5 Military assistance from other countries  

   The victory of Battle of Saratoga was the turning point of American Revolution, and also was the decisive factor which drove European countries like France to attend the anti-Britain wars. After this battle, France really attended those wars which made them expanded into international wars. Afterwards Spain and Dutch also attended, but for colonial hegemony. The battlefield had expanded to East India, West India and Europe. British was besieged on all sides, which to a large extent determined the end of American Revolution.       

3.6 Publication of the Declaration of Independence

On forth July 1776, the Continental Congress passed the Declaration of Independence, drafted by Thomas Jefferson, which not only represented his own democratic thought, but also reflected inner voice of people in the North America. After its publication, people were greatly encouraged and devoted themselves to the revolutionary war, which laid the firm mass foundation for the victory of American Revolution.

4. Evaluation of American Revolutionary

American Revolution is a typical example of “the weak overcoming the strong” type, which got the support from home and abroad. Its victory disintegrated the colonial system of the British Empire, and exampled for other colonies else in the world.

The giant and brave contribution of the army and people played a decisive role for the final victory. Meanwhile, American forces adopted flexible strategies, combing regular warfare with guerrilla warfare and abandoning traditional battle formation.  During the period, America carried out flexible foreign policies, making good use of international contradiction to gain the supports from France, Dutch and Span.

American Revolutionary was not only a national independent war, but also a great bourgeois revolution. It overturned British colonial rule and establish United States of America. Meanwhile, it eradicated the survivals of feudalism in colonial period such as slavery, the law of primogeniture and son on, which emancipated the productive forces and opened a broad way for American capitalism. Furthermore, the success of American Revolution promoted the bourgeois revolution of Europe and Latin America.

 

 

 

References

[1] Greene, J. P., & Pole, J. R. (Eds.). (2008). A companion to the American revolution (Vol. 17). John Wiley & Sons.

[2] Black, J. (1991). War for America: the fight for independence, 1775-1783. Alan Sutton.

 

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