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Doctrine ontology

2020-02-21 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是实证主义本体论认为存在一个独立于人类感知的客观世界。社会世界是由普遍规律构成的,与物质世界的形成方式相同。实证主义者持有的另一种信念是,现象之间的因果关系构成现实,这种因果关系可以通过其存在的经验证据来掌握。经验观察将产生一个准确或接近准确的现实画面。

 

Positivist ontology states that there is an objective world that exists independently from human perception. The social world is constructed by universal laws in the same way as the physical world is shaped. Another belief that positivists hold is that the causal relationships between phenomena constitute reality and this cause-and-effect relationships can be grasped by empirical evidences of its existence. Empirical observation will produce an accurate or close to accurate picture of reality.

 

Positivist epistemology believe that our understanding of social world goes in the same way as our understanding of physical world, via observation and recording of observations by a neutral, independent, and objective researcher. Knowledge of social world is based on scientific observation to determine causal relationships between phenomena. Therefore, in positivist approach of understanding the world, an objective, unprejudiced researcher and observer plays a dominant role in that they have to remain an open-minded and neutral attitude to ensure objectivity. On the other hand, collectivity, the scientific community as whole guarantees objectivity through criticism of each other’ work, efforts to refute findings.  

 

In application of positivist paradigm to a specific case of Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry, we notice that in considering the effects of a gas pipeline, the policy maker also takes into account cumulative impact from other aspect, for instance, its influence to other transportation system like an oil line. We will describe detailed evidences that the researchers use in building this pipeline.

 

First of all, the choice of the construction location of the gas pipeline demonstrates the policy makers’ wisdom in considering long-standing causal relationships between different phenomenon. Because if a gas pipeline is built along with the Mackenzie Valley, there is a high possibility that a oil pipeline will also be built. Even though discoveries of oil does not reach the threshold today, but in future with the advance of technology, it could be exploited. This insight about the potential relationship between an oil pipeline and a gas pipeline shows that in making a decision about a construction, one at least should examine the effects from other variables which may exerts influence in the whole program.

 

Furthermore, in considering whether there should be a corridor to carry energy resources from Alaska through the vital area of Canada, we also have to consider what route it should follow and when it should be established. Because Unites States shows great interest into this pipeline, we also have to consider potential international relationships between these two governments based on given facts about geological knowledge of these two countries and predication made about future plan of other energy pipelines.

 

In sum, not limited to the two above aspects about this pipeline inquiry, positivist paradigm largely manifests itself in making the final decision about its building location and time in that we regard a social fact (building pipelines) as bound by social laws in the same way as physical world. In addition, the potential causal relations between the building of a gas pipeline and other social aspects is also taken into consideration when deciding for its building location.

 

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