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A Discussion of Decolonization Movement of Chile

2020-02-17 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文- A Discussion of Allende Gossens and Decolonization Movement of Chile,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是通过对智利的非殖民化运动及其在美国的生活经历的描述,来探讨Allende Gossens的非殖民化运动,并探讨殖民地人民与殖民政权之间存在的冲突,这是在中国政府态度的影响下。

A Discussion of Allende Gossens and Decolonization Movement of Chile

In 1970, Allende Gossens the doctor and Marxist becomes the first president to win the free election in Latin America. Later under his leadership, Chile underwent a series of changes in terms of political, social and economical areas. This essay will discuss the decolonization movement of Chile and role of Allende Gossens in it based on the description of his life experience, and explores the conflicts existed between the colonized people and colonial power, which is under the influence of the attitude of the U.S. Government.

Allende was born in Valparaiso, a middle class family. He once participate in movement organized by students. In 1932 he received a doctor of medicine degree. In 1933 he founded the Chilean Socialist Party, and has served as general secretary of the party. Elected president in 1970. Since the socialist administration in Cuba in 1961, Latin American left-wing parties have mushroomed and the workers' movement has come one after another. In his presidential office, he vigorously promoted socialist transformation within the capitalist legal system, implemented nationalization and land reform. In the vigorous land reform, there was acquisition of large estate land, and the establishment of a large number of cooperatives and state-owned farms, and so on. In the socialist reform that mainly included nationalization of copper mines and some large-scale enterprise, it has promoted social welfare, increased staff wages substantially and raised people's income. Allende's rule in Chile from 1970 to 1973 was in some respects as an extraordinary period(Morris, Mueller, and Jelin, 1974). In just three years, Chile's economic indicators, infrastructure and social welfare have been significantly increased. After he took power, he also insisted on safeguarding the sovereignty and national independence of the country, safeguarding the country's economic interests, and opposing the hegemony of the United States. In the last speech made by Allende to his countrymen in 1973 , it is spoken by him that “The people must defend themselves, but they must not sacrifice themselves”(Allende,  1973). He also proposed that Chile should embark on a new road for a peaceful transition to a socialist society through elections. These radical reforms have been opposed by the right-wing domestic forces and have also seriously threatened the interests of the United States in Latin America. 

The opposition against radical reforms of Allende is related with conflict between the colonial power and the colonized people. Politically, most Latin American countries copy the political system in the West. The ruling classes in developed countries are mainly the big bourgeoisie that have grown up in the process of long-term economic and social development. They have great control over the society. Therefore, under western-style democracy, the ruling order in the developed countries is orderly and stable. The monopoly of the big bourgeoisie firmly holds the power of the regime.  On the contrary, the ruling class of developing countries, especially Latin American countries, is mainly the comprador bourgeoisie closely linked with the international monopoly capital, and the other sort of bourgeoisie is the national bourgeoisie. Also, there are a large number of land owners. There is an inequality and the totalizing power of capital in Latin American(Webber, 281). It is true for Chile as well. The comprador bourgeoisie are hard to be independent and often betray their national interests and are dependent on international monopoly capital. Land owners often maintain the backward forms of production relations and development mode and hinder the economic development. The national bourgeoisie because of their lack of economic strength, can neither meet the needs of the general public nor are the powerful capitalism and competition. Therefore, the political ecology in Chile is formed by the traditional old forces represented by crop industry, the alliance between foreign capital and emerging domestic capital, and makes it a politically unstable country. Thus, the political situation in Chile is extremely unstable. There is thus no thorough political and economic reform, with one-sided pursuit of economic growth. No matter what kind of development model, there is unfair income distribution, corruption, unemployment and polarization between the rich and the poor and other social problems. Contradictions have increased and Chile is often in a state of turmoil in the socio-political and economic situation.

The one even more fearful is the U.S. government who opposed the decolonization movement a lot. Capitalism treats socialism as an impending plague from the point of infection to the surface; In the early 1970s, capitalists had a rivalry outside. An invisible iron curtain was blocking the American continent. The crisis caused by the oil shortage in the camp caused the situation of all countries to turn sharply worse. After Allende the Chile's left-wing popular president, took a national nationalization after he took office, he followed the example of the "Soviet model" and offend past vested interests. Socialist reform must not only confiscate capitalist property and promote public ownership, but also implement an equalization policy in due course. What's more, the United States has substantive economic interests in Chile. Facing the risks that Chile may become the socialist countries, there was a plot to kill Allende by the military leader. The administration worrying that another Latin American Marxist leader might attempt to pursue the electoral path to power, used Chilean people to bring down his democratically elected socialist government in case it spreads communism to the rest of Latin America(Wolf, 2008). The accomplice are Chilean landowners, some of the middle class, the right-wing National Party, and the Roman Catholic Church. The mastermind behind is the United States. The Western countries headed by the United States were worried about their interests and opposes Allende, but he is the legally elected president. On the one hand, he publicly condemns the imposition of sanctions and, on the other hand, secretly communicates with the coup d'état. There is a U.S. complicity in the process of coup(Toprani, and Moss, 2011). Under the plan of the United States, the soldiers launched a coup d'état that overthrew the democratically elected government and leads to Allende's own death. When the presidential palace in Chile was surrounded by thousands of soldiers, there were only about a dozen clerks, attendants and secretaries around him. Years spent, Allende with portable submachine gun refused to surrender, until he died. There was an uproar in the world after his death.

The economy and society were on the brink of collapse and were overthrown by the armed forces of the right-wing forces headed by then-chief Commander-in-Chief Pinochet after the death of Allende. Pinochet coup later came to power. On the one hand, the new leaders has pay close attention to the economy. He favored the wealthy, attracted foreign investment, which achieved fast economic development; on the one hand, there is a large-scale suppression of the opposition. He shot and assassinated many people, a lot of which are professors, editors, reporters , and parliamentarians.  Just as Allende remarked that in his last speech “ fascism has been already present for many hours”(Allende, 1973). Until the 1990s, he gave the power back to the people in the 1990s, but he continued to serve as commander-in-chief of the army for eight full years and still defended the status of interest groups with the army as the core. It is precisely because of the incomplete political and economic reforms in Chile, the old forces and the foreign influence are still relatively strong and dependent on each other. Moreover, the military administration is a tradition of Chile and the battle between politicians and generals has been going on for a long time. Soldiers will not be willing to be driven out of the stage by democratically elected president, and they have the desire to restore the power. Thus, when they have the opportunity, the landowners of the old societies, religions, and capitalists in the new society, are afraid to lose the right to property and exploitation during the revolution, and become proletarians. Chile after the decolonization movement still has its dependence on foreign capital, markets and technology in the process of economic development, reducing its ability to resist external shocks.Therefore, they are often in a dilemma of development and the backward forces thus have the ruling chance.

Both the experiences and lessons learned from the coup d'état that the Allende's government was overthrown and the theories and practices of scientific socialism all show that the harm if the reform of the economic structure is not carried out and the influence of the backward social strata is not weakened. To reform and gradually combat the old social, political and economic forces, it is necessary to actively oppose hegemonism and power politics. By contrast, an overly superstition of the multi-party politics, election politics and parliamentary politics in the West will lead to the change of power and the right-wing assumption of power. In a society with a wide gap between the rich and the poor, one-sided emphasis on economic growth will often lead to the imbalance of the originally polarized social structure, and economic growth and social development will be unsustainable. Due to the huge vested interest groups obstructing social progress, the modernization of these countries is hardly able to achieve greater success.  In the history of Chile, the left wing came to power in the past but failed in the face of the counterattack of the right and foreign hostile forces. There is thus a kind of "pendulum-like" fluctuation in Chile. The left-wing people such as Allende took offices and make some adjustments in their political and economic policies. If there is a threat to the core interests of large-scale domestic plantation owners and large plantation owners and foreign capital, it was subverted by various means and even by the coup d'état in terms of the right and foreign hostile forces. Then, the one with the right wing came to power and began one-sided pursuit of economic growth. Most of the fruits of economic development were taken by domestic big capital and foreign capital, which further intensified social conflicts and changed people's minds. They also called for the left wing to take power to make changes. 

To sum up, Allende made contribution to the decolonization movement of Chile and worked to raise people's incomes and improve social welfare. However, given the deep-seated and complex conflicts existed between the colonized people and the colonial power and opposition from the U.S., it fails to consolidate the results of revolution.

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