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Comprehension and Interpretation for Euphronios Krater’s Painting

2019-05-24 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Comprehension and Interpretation for Euphronios Kraters Painting,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了欧弗拉尼奥斯·克拉特的绘画。古时候,古希腊的艺术创作以惊人的速度蓬勃发展,萨佩登·克拉特被列为创新的象征。《克拉特》是欧弗拉尼奥斯最具代表性的作品。这幅画是建立在神话之上的,简单的象征可以勾勒出当时战争环境的范围。

In this essay there will be discussion on the painting on Sarpedon krater using three steps of the iconographic methods.

The Sarpedon krater, also known as Euphronios krater, was a calyx krater created by Euphronios around 510 BC (Junker 2012, p56), which is the archaic period in Ancient Greece. At that time Ancient Greek prosperously thrived in astonishing pace, when Sarpedon krater can be listed as an innovative symbol. The krater was painted in red-figure technique and was the most representative work of Euphronios. Illegally unearthed in late 1971 near Cerveteri, Italy, this krater was one of the grave goods from an Etruscan tomb. Therefore it can be assumed that this krater was recognized as well as valued, and it was used as a sacrificial object.

To seek for profound comprehension of this krater there are three steps of iconographic methods can be applied. According to Panofsky (1939), the first step is to understand the “primary or natural subject matter”, which includes factual and expressional factors that “constituting the world of artistic motifs”. Step two will focus on “secondary or conventional subject matter”, which “constitute the world of images, stories and allegories”. In the third step “intrinsic meaning or content” of the art will be taken into account, which “constitute the world of symbolical values”.

Based on the theories above and reading of corresponding verses, it can be figured that there are certain linkables and unlinkables between the krater and literatures. This krater drew the story of Sarpedon’s death during Trojan War. In the center of this painting is the dead Sarpedon, bleeding in chest, belly and thigh, which is correspondent to the verses as “It (Patroclus’s spear) struck Sarpedon where the lungs enclosed his dense heart……Partroclus put his foot on his chest and withdrew the spear from his flesh……he had drawn out the spear-point and the man’s life together” (Homer et al, 2003, p287). Also in the painting there are two figures, Thanatos and his twin brother Hypnos carrying Sarpedon, who represent Death and Sleep separately in the verses. This image was in the command that Zeus gave to his sun Apollo to save Sarpedon’s body: “……Then send him to be borne away by Sleep and his twin-brother Death, those swift attendants, who will quickly set him down in broad Lycia’s fertile realm……” (Homer et al, 2003, p291). Furthermore, the warrior figures on the side of Thanatos and Hypnos also reflect the verses as they represent the image and scene of this great war. Whereas there are some features do not match the original verses. The painting suggests the god in the middle is Hermes while according to the verses it is Apollo that “descended from the mountain of Ida into the mayhem of the fight” and “at once he took godlike Sarpedon out of range……” (Homer et al, 2003, p292), therefore they are not agree with each other for this matter. Also according to Zeus’s command to Apollo, Sarpedon should have been washed in running water, anointed with ambrosia and wrapped in immortal robe, and then to be borne with Sleep and Death (Homer et al, 2003, p291). Yet Sarpedon on the painting is still bleeding and neither anointed nor wrapped with robe, which is one of other unlinkables between painting and verses. Last but not least, according to verses the battle was a rather miserable havoc and the scene was messed up, but there’s no dust or cruel killing images in this painting except for two calm soldiers standing in mirror image. These two comrades of Sarpedon act as if they are viewing and guarding the sacred scene in the middle. Hence it is not matching with the chaos as in verses.

This painting can be attributed as verbalizing – visualizing – Imaging (Junker 2012, p60). The painting is established over verbalized myth and simple symbolization could outline the whole sphere of war environment. Euphronios chose an abstract theme from literal myth, for which viewers can visualize the image in advance through reading the verses. Then the painting shows as a verification to the audience against their imagination and specifies the details of this myth. In addition, the painting on the front of this krater gives an explicit of mythological scene in verses when the atmosphere is calm and godlike. The helmet, wings, leather corslet and richly creased cloak and greaves (Junker 2012, p57) on the figures all suggest the sacred characteristic and consecrate atmosphere. Whereas the soldiers on the back of this krater perform normally as they are putting on their armours and going to the battlefield. This combination with god and human images together conveys the idea from painter that the viewers should comprehend the mythological situation with sense of real-life objects. In this way myths are better virtualized and connected with specific feelings and the content will be given a reflective and profound meaning (Junker 2012, p191). Furthermore this painting tells a story of hero’s death, which is an explicit approach of hybris for “transgression of boundaries” (Junker 2012, p190). Revealing the opposite side of heroism stories can lead to realistic and critical thinking, and the unexpected story line could visualize the myth as well as offer more empathetic understanding to viewers. Moreover through the painting on the back of this krater, it can be recognized that the daily scene of warriors getting ready for the war shows the intensity. Yet the depiction is not direct on the war scene, putting focus on soldiers outside the battlefield and combining with dead Sarpedon convey much more space for imagination and built a vivid feeling of this tragedy.

To sum up, this painting on Euphronios krater drew an outline of Sarpedon’s death scene and in the background of Trojan War. There are certain linkables and unlinkables between the original verses and this piece of art. Through three steps of iconographic methods this painting can be interpreted in terms of natural subject matter, conventional subject matter and intrinsic meaning as well as content. Furthermore this painting used verbalizing – visualizing – imaging method on expression, made a combination of mythological and unmythological scenes and gave a reflective description.

Reference

Panofsky, E. (1939). Humanistic Themes of the Art of the Renaissance.

Junker, K, (2012). Interpreting the Images of Greek Myths. Cambridge: University Press. UK.

Homer, E. V Rieu, P. V Jones, and D. C. H Rieu. (2003). The Iliad. Penguin Classics. London: Penguin Books.

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