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Industrial restructuring in the UK

2019-04-30 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Industrial restructuring in the UK,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的产业结构调整。英国大规模国有化改革发生在二战后至20世纪70年代。二战后,英国工业/制造业竞争优势逐渐被美国、法国和德国赶超,而世界领导者的地位也逐渐被取代。英国不断意识到工业/制造业在经济发展中具有不可替代的地位,为促进制造业发展并提升其国际竞争力,英国开始实行大规模国有化改革。但在国有化改革中,因政府的过度干预及对市场和政府失败风险的过度低估,此次改革除去较少制造业得以较好发展外,大部分国有化改革最终以失败告终。

Industrial restructuring,英国产业结构,essay代写,作业代写,代写

"Deindustrialization", "industrial hollowing out" and the rapid development of the service industry lead to the increasingly "softening" of the industrial structure in Britain. After the financial crisis, Britain has exposed the imbalance of industrial structure and the vulnerability of the service-led industry development. In order to boost the domestic economy and achieve the "rebalancing" of the industrial structure, the UK launched the industrial structure adjustment focusing on the "return to manufacturing". From the perspective of industrial structure, this paper analyzes the causes and main contents of industrial structure adjustment in Britain along the line of "industrialization -- deindustrialization -- reindustrialization", and further analyzes the main effects of industrial structure adjustment in Britain on this basis, and then analyzes the future development prospect of British industry.

After the financial crisis, the British economy was hit hard, and the industrial development model of continuous "deindustrialization" and over-service was also questioned. In order to quickly boost the economy and promote the "rebalancing" of the industrial structure, the British government has proposed a series of plans of "returning to manufacturing" and "reindustrialization", and once again carried out "drastic" adjustment and reform of the industrial structure. The British government released the industrial 2050 strategy in 2013, hoping to achieve the "rebalancing" of industrial structure by adjusting industrial policies and strategies.

Since Britain joined the European Community, its industrial structure has always been in the process of development where the "internal factors" accumulated by itself and the "external factors" brought about by the changes in the competitive environment work together. The overall trend is determined by the resultant direction and intensity contrast of internal and external factors at different points in time. On the whole, since joining the European Community, Britain has experienced the process of accelerating "de-industrialization" and accelerating the realization of financial service, as well as the process of industrial structure rebalancing, industrial structure rationalization and industrial structure upgrading. In fact, the process of British industrial structure adjustment is actually the process of "rectifying the deviation" of its own industrial structure and economic structure. From the perspective of industrial structure, this paper mainly analyzes the causes, adjustment process and effect of industrial structure adjustment in the UK, and on this basis, further analyzes the prospect of industrial development in the UK.

While proposing the standard industrial model of industrial structure evolution, h. chanery also emphasized the possibility of diversified evolution of industrial structure. "There is no single model for structural change in different countries, because it is influenced by a country's resource endowment, initial conditions and the development policies it chooses," he said. In order to boost the economy and enhance the international competitiveness, the UK has been constantly adjusting its industrial structure, and the path and direction of the industrial structure adjustment in the UK are restricted by the joint efforts of internal and external factors.

The fierce international trade competition is the direct impetus for Britain to adjust its industrial structure. In the process of international trade, the trade demand and economies of scale will directly lead to the development of comparative advantage industry, such as capital, technology and human factor endowments will continue to flow to high value-added industries and knowledge-intensive industries, and raise the proportion of the industry in the national economy and speed up the industrial structure upgrade. Especially since the 1970s, the trade market, competition rules and international environment faced by the UK have changed significantly, and the fierce trade competition has led to the gradual loss of the competitive advantage of British industries, especially manufacturing industry. Under the tide of globalization, the international division of labor has greatly weakened the share of British manufacturing industry in the international market. With the continuous rise of emerging economies, cheap labor and abundant natural resources have greatly reduced the corresponding prices of total products and services in the international market, resulting in the gradual loss of competitiveness of British manufactured goods.

With the development of a country's economy and the improvement of residents' income level, the elasticity of demand income of the manufacturing and service sectors changes, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the proportion of residents' expenditure on necessities, while an increase in the proportion of the demand for non-necessities and advanced consumer goods such as the service sector. At the same time, income growth and consumption preference will promote the development of service industry more than that of manufacturing industry, which to some extent promotes the transformation and upgrading of industrial structure.

Technology and technological innovation is an important constraint for a country to occupy the future trade market and the commanding heights of science and technology. After 2000, Britain paid more attention to the development of technology, innovation and enterprise. To this end, the government issued a white paper on competitiveness, "our competitive future: building a knowledge-based economy", and formulated a corresponding "manufacturing strategy". The strategy identifies seven pillars of successful manufacturing: macroeconomic stability, investment, technology and innovation, best practices, improving technology, modern infrastructure, and dynamic competitive markets. In economic development, the productivity gap between countries is also mainly due to differences in technology, technological innovation, research and development, and investment. Therefore, it is also the main driving force for the continuous tilting of the industrial structure in the field of technology and technological innovation policy in the UK.

The prosperity of an economy is closely related to the level of productivity. In the long run, Britain has a relatively weak productivity performance compared with other developed countries. Statistics show that Britain's hourly productivity index is on a par with Canada's, 15 percentage points higher than Japan's, but about 10 percentage points lower than Italy's, and 28-30 percentage points lower than Germany's, America's and France's. This shows, productivity level is the main factor that pulls apart difference between the country. With the acceleration of the pace of economic restructuring in the UK, the UK economy began to enter the stage of accelerated growth since the mid-1990s. Correspondingly, the gap between its productivity and other developed countries has also been relatively narrowed, with the gap remaining below 4%. However, after the financial crisis, the gap in productivity has gradually widened.

After World War II, British industrial/manufacturing competitive advantage was gradually overtaken by the United States, France and Germany, and the position of world leader was gradually replaced. Britain is increasingly aware of the irreplaceable role of industry/manufacturing in economic development. In order to promote the development of manufacturing industry and enhance its international competitiveness, Britain began to implement large-scale nationalization reform. Try to close the technology gap with developed countries such as the us by creating "champions" that support high-value-added industries such as aerospace, cars and computers. However, in the nationalization reform, due to the excessive intervention of the government and the excessive underestimation of the market and the risk of government failure, except for the relatively few manufacturing industries, most of the nationalization reform eventually failed.

Under thatcher, the most prominent policy in Britain was the industrial policy of free competition. In the international environment of economic globalization, European economic integration and free competition, the government has to implement the policy of free competition in order to rapidly develop the economy and enhance the international competitiveness. From the excessive intervention at the beginning to the sharp decrease of the support now, enterprises can survive through fierce competition, which leads to the flow of resource endowment to the service industry with obvious comparative advantages, and further leads to the decline of manufacturing industry.

The period from the 1990s to 2008 was an important transition period for the industrial structure and even the economic structure of the UK, but the rapid pace of "deindustrialization" and "excessive financialization" made the industrial structure of the UK in a serious imbalance. According to the 2014 European competitiveness report, the UK does not have a competitive advantage in the manufacturing industry with high added value, except for the services industry such as finance and insurance, which have obvious comparative advantages. At the same time, with the spread of economic globalization and the intensification of international division of labor, the rapid rise of emerging economies further seized the British manufacturing market, and Britain's international trade status further declined. Reinvigorate manufacturing and "rebalance" the industrial structure. The financial crisis has reawakened Britain to the importance of manufacturing. In 2013, the British government issued the "of British industry 2050 strategy", and formulated a series of revitalizing manufacturing planning, not only lies in accelerating the reverse flow of manufacturing, more is to promote science and technology and digital technology, through the science and technology and information technology, the product, the production and technology of network to carry on the fusion, broadening the British consumer market through continuous innovation and enhance the competitiveness of manufacturing industry.

After the financial crisis, the UK made a series of arrangements for the development of the manufacturing industry, and successively formulated a series of development reports on the future of the manufacturing industry, which not only made a comprehensive assessment of the development of the UK's manufacturing industry, but also provided guidance for the future development trend of the UK's industry and manufacturing industry. At the same time, the British government also increased the relevant production industry input. In February 2015, the government allocated 104 million pounds to the construction industry, including 22 million pounds to improve new assembly technology, increase productivity and reduce costs, support the development of industrial supply chain, and introduce digital engineering and installation technology. In order to promote the development of life science industry, the UK has invested 20 million pounds in the innovation of life science, laying a foundation for the leading position of life science in the world.

In February 2015, the UK formulated the digital economy strategy 2015-2018, which aims to fully develop the global digital services market. , according to the plan from 2015 ~ 2018, the UK each year will be put into 3 0 million pounds a year to support the British commercial projects in the field of digital innovation, the implementation of the plan can not only reduce the cost of doing business, trade costs, and can broaden the UK in the global consumer market, timely insight into consumer demand, maintain timely communication with the consumer.

Technology is an important channel to change human life style and bring significant development opportunities to the country. The UK is now accelerating the development of emerging industries and enabling technologies to develop new products and services in new industries. The UK innovation agency says new technologies being explored will give businesses a huge boost. New science and technology mainly includes quantum technology, synthetic biology, non-animal technology, microbial membrane, energy collection, mono-atomic layer and new imaging technology. Enabling technologies mainly cover network security, data, satellite earth observation, electronics, Internet of things, sensors and photovoltaic and robot autonomous systems.

The development of a country's industry is the development of enterprises in the final analysis. The macro-control of the industrial structure needs to be realized through the micro-adjustment of enterprises. For the development of enterprises, the effective stimulus policy is the key to improve the level of enterprise productivity and stimulate the scientific and technological innovation of enterprises, and the reduction of enterprise tax and the implementation of fiscal stimulus will be an effective means to support the development of enterprises.

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