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Research teaching in Britain

2019-03-26 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Research teaching in Britain,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的研究性教学。研究性教学是世界上不少大学都非常关注的事情,欧美国家在这方面已走在前列。而英国的研究性教学作为一种需要由教师创设一种类似科学研究的情境和途径,指导学生在主动探索和主动实践的研究过程中吸收知识,分析并解决问题的教学模式。研究性教学开展最关键的一环是课堂教学的设计与组织,在课堂上,教师如何提出问题,如何引导学生思考,教师用什么方法来组织课堂教学活动,至关重要。研究性教学不仅仅体现在课堂上,还应更多的延伸到课堂外。

Research teaching,英国研究性教学,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Since the 1990s, research teaching has become the pursuit of many universities in the world and has been implemented. For example, American research-based teaching emphasizes problem - and project-based teaching, while students learn based on problems and projects. In France, research teaching and learning have been carried out in junior high schools, pre-university classes and senior high schools. Japan also carries out research teaching and learning in the form of integrated activity curriculum. Subject teaching and learning have also been carried out in Germany. Many scholars in China have studied the problems related to research-based teaching, and some schools have started the practice and reform of research-based teaching. However, the domestic research-based teaching either stays in the stage of Shouting slogans or just operates in a scattered way, and has not formed the scale of "point" with "surface", and the overall effect has not been highlighted.

In 2013, the author, as a visiting scholar, went to the university of northampton in the UK for further study, and participated in the classroom teaching activities of northampton university in person. He had some practical experience and understanding of the research teaching of northampton university. The following is the result of this practice survey.

Existing research shows that the research-oriented teaching as a teacher has to be creating a similar situation and way of scientific research, to guide students in the process of active exploration and active practice of research to absorb knowledge, analyze and solve the problem of teaching mode, teachers need to undertake to the student individual instruction and guidance, in the number of students significantly relative to teachers too many cases, a course entirely borne by a teacher to carry out the research-oriented teaching is not reality. At the same time, research-based teaching pays more attention to the cultivation of the spirit of exploration and the ability to create while paying attention to the transmission of knowledge. The cultivation of innovative ability needs an open environment and the collision of ideas of people from different backgrounds and levels. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a complementary teaching team with multiple teachers for the same course, so as to achieve the value-added effect of "1+1>2". Based on the above considerations, northampton university adopts the teaching team model to carry out teaching activities in the course teaching. Usually, each class has a module leader, there are three members, team leader is the head of the course, the speaker and evaluators, teaching is generally done by the team leader, discussion on the number of host is according to the field of seminar, by the team leader and team members separately, sometimes together, two or three teachers at the same time to participate in the same discussion, complement each other, to guide students to explore the cause of the problem and the answer. In the cooperation of teaching teams, team members are usually just auxiliary roles. As the weekly learning of each course in northampton university is strictly divided into lecture part and discussion part, other team teachers as auxiliary roles generally only participate in the teaching activities of the discussion part, and the topic of each discussion is determined by the leader of the teaching team, while other teachers are mainly responsible for the organization and guidance. In this way, it can not only ensure the systematicness of teaching, but also ensure the openness and effectiveness of teaching, so as to achieve the purpose of not only enabling students to learn knowledge, but also cultivating students' spirit of innovation and exploration.

Since the essence of research-based teaching is to apply the thoughts and ideas of scientific research into teaching, emphasizing the ability to raise questions, analyze questions, put forward hypotheses, verify and finally draw conclusions, it is very important to train students' thinking of scientific research. In order to train students' research-oriented thinking, northampton university tries to take this factor into consideration in the course organization and evaluation. First of all, in the organization of each course, a lot of class hours will be spent teaching students how to do scientific research. For example, in the course issues in small business in which the author participated, a full 4 weeks, or 1 month, of the 12-week course in a semester was devoted to training students on how to set up the framework of papers, how to propose their own topics, and how to write scientific research articles in a standard format. The other three courses I attended also arranged 3-4 weeks to train my ability in this aspect. Secondly, before the start of each week's class, the teacher will inform the discussion topics of the seminar in advance, arrange students to study independently, consult materials on the given topic, and form their own opinions, so as to discuss with each other in the discussion class. If you don't prepare in advance, not check data, will have nothing to say, when discussing or without special meaningful point of view, will affect to the performance evaluation of this course, which makes the students have to go to a lot of reading, which can put forward a lot of problems, and have a certain understanding depth, the problem of learned many knowledge, some students even can on a topic to write very beautiful research were reviewed. Finally, in the evaluation of students, almost all courses will require to write a small paper or a big paper related to the course, as the most important part of the grade evaluation. The school is very strict on the requirements of the paper, at least in the format must follow a Harvard style, check rate can not exceed 30%, and the article must have a standardized literature review. All these are the training and development of students' scientific research thinking.

The most critical part of research-based teaching is the design and organization of classroom teaching. In the classroom, it is of vital importance to know how teachers raise questions, how to guide students to think and how teachers organize classroom teaching activities. Existing research shows that teachers ask questions step by step in class, encourage students to ask more questions, make good teaching design before class, and adopt methods such as group discussion, debate, demonstration, role playing and case analysis in class, which are all very effective research teaching methods. This can break the tedium of traditional teaching methods, create an open classroom, truly reflect the student-oriented, so that students can learn knowledge in a relaxed atmosphere, acquire the ability to analyze and solve problems, and cultivate creativity.

The design and organization of each course in the university of northampton are centered on the innovation, which is the core element of research-based teaching. As mentioned above, each course at the university of northampton rigorous teaching is divided into teaching and discussion part, teaching part of the general 1 hours every week, choose the same class of the students are taught to part of the study, the discussion section is 1 to 2 hours, choose the students of the same course is divided into several groups in different time and classroom discussion, each group generally about 20 people, many large classes, sometimes as many as seven to eight, discussion group in the concrete discussion, each group will be divided into multiple smaller groups, about 4 people in order to make sure to discuss the effect. During the lecture, the teacher will sort out some basic concepts, principles, methods, meanings, schools and other basic theories of relevant topics, and introduce the latest research results in the academic field. When introducing these ideas, the PPT will strictly mark in an academic format which author proposed this idea or theory in which year, so as to remind students to show respect for intellectual property in completing their course papers and other research activities. At the same time, the teacher will also put forward their own views on these basic theories, and ask students to put forward their own views boldly, learn from each other, and welcome criticism. Of course, during the lecture, the teacher will also put forward some specific questions for students to discuss in the following discussion sections. It can be seen that even in the teaching part, teachers' teaching activities are all centered on the core goal of research-based teaching -- "innovation". In addition, discussion courses of the university can embody the characteristics of research-based teaching to cultivate students' "innovation". Discussion classes are generally open, and brainstorming is a common discussion method. Teachers will encourage students to make a wide range of speeches on a certain topic, and then guide students to analyze each speech and finally form a feasible conclusion. In enterprise & opportunity at a seminar course, teachers had to a local northampton's highest elevator again use and development of the commercial value of the tower as the theme, take the way of brain storming please students to speak freely, and to give students the newspapers and fluorescent color pen, please attend the discussion of each group draw your ideas in the form of graphs, the students can sit can lie on the table, when participating in a chair or on the floor, the scene is very relaxed and harmonious. Of course, in addition to brainstorming, case sharing, role-playing, simulation games, and demonstration of results are often used in discussion sections.

Research-based teaching is not only reflected in the classroom, but also should be extended to the classroom. Northampton university has its own practice in this regard. A teaching team often works together to organize students to practice outside the classroom on a particular topic. For the business courses I have participated in, the teacher team has organized Christmas market, entrepreneurship practice, market research competition with nelson company, social entrepreneurship experience and so on. In these extracurricular activities, usually follow the principle of voluntary, want to participate in advance registration reservation, the cost of their own. Through these practices, students can better understand the essence of the major or related courses.

The better teaching mode in foreign countries is usually favored and sought after by Chinese people. However, what works well in foreign countries may not be successfully implemented in China. This involves cultural differences, the impact of the original system and other factors, acclimatization in a certain period of time is inevitable. What we need to explore is how to shorten the period of "acclimatization" more effectively.

Research in foreign countries as a reference in the process of teaching concept and mode, many scholars study found that at present, the ideological understanding there are differences existing in Chinese research-oriented teaching, supporting facilities is not enough resources cannot effectively sharing, not enough teachers to promote active, students participate in actively, it is difficult to form a teaching team, or after forming in name only, and many other issues. The reasons of these problems are all related to the rigid educational management system, such as the assessment and evaluation system for teachers and students, and the soft cultural system. In order to solve these problems and promote the research teaching rapidly, we must reform the corresponding soft and hard systems. Research from the institutional school shows that there are two basic modes of institutional reform, one is top-down mandatory reform, the other is bottom-up induced reform. The first model is short and quick, but causes more pain. So, if you want to clear the way as soon as possible, shorten the localization transplant period, the best way to enforce, carrying out research-based teaching thoroughly remove some of the education management system, perfect the evaluation index system of teachers and students, promote teamwork among teachers, make the teaching team, also remove curse to the teacher's research, teachers have more enthusiasm and time devoted to teaching, at the same time, the increase of capital security and supporting measures.

As for the university of northampton, it has been mentioned above that they attach great importance to the training and cultivation of students' scientific research quality in the evaluation of research teaching, curriculum design and organization. Almost every course will arrange course papers, and the requirements for papers are strict, and the proportion of papers is very high. To a certain extent, it does improve the ability of some students to analyze and solve problems with the thinking of research, and also exercise their innovation ability. However, in reality, due to the urgent demand for papers, a huge industry has been created to help students complete their course papers. Some will pay 60 to 100 for a paper of 1,000 words. More people will turn to websites that can help students search many related articles with one click and generate a standard paper format or reference with one click. Students only need to copy some paragraphs and sentences of related articles and then change key words and phrases. Originally, the school aims to cultivate students' innovative spirit through scientific research, but sometimes it turns out to be a mechanical operation for some students without much thinking. When carrying out research teaching, can we consider not making writing papers a burden? As long as the students can have new ideas, can follow the standard scientific research steps to implement, draw valuable conclusions, in the form of oral report, then group discussion evaluation is also acceptable.

In addition, in class discussions, sometimes students in the discussion section of northampton university do not actively discuss, only a few people speak regularly, other members of the group hitchhike, and sometimes simply discuss other topics unrelated to the topic. Of course, this is related to the level of teacher organization and intervention in the classroom. However, since schools attach great importance to students' evaluation of teachers, teachers sometimes do not interfere too much in students' deviation from the classroom in order to please students. Therefore, when carrying out research-based teaching, we may need to create an environment that allows more people to speak actively, such as the system of taking turns to speak, and stimulate teachers' awareness of interfering in students' deviation from classroom behavior.

Nowadays, research teaching is more and more valued by people. There are many ready-made experiences for us to use for reference in British research teaching. However, at the same time of using for reference, we need to recognize its potential defects and combine with some characteristics of each school to take the advantages of others and make up for the disadvantages.

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