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The U.S. strategic communications system

2019-02-26 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The U.S. strategic communications system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的战略传播体系。美国的战略传播是美国政府为理解并触及关键受众,以便创造、强化或保持有利于增进美国政府的利益、政策和目标的环境而进行的针对性努力。战略传播与国家权力的所有手段相同步,使用协调一致的方案、规划、信息、主题和产品。

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The U.S. government and the mainstream media have long characterized the term "propaganda" as the preserve of authoritarian states, as if they had never done it themselves. In fact, since World War II, the United States has built a vast, efficient and sophisticated global propaganda machine. In the different historical period, the U.S. government USES more than one term referring to the domestic and foreign public and covert propaganda activities, including "public diplomacy", "public affairs", "information", "psychological warfare" and "concept", "information warfare", "psychological operation", "information operation", "there are accused of spread of information", "strategic", and so on.

In 2010, under the vigorous promotion of the us military and marked by President Obama's national strategic communications framework, the us government finally used the term "strategic communications" to cover all these activities.

Strategic communications in the United States is a targeted effort by the U.S. government to understand and reach key audiences in order to create, strengthen, or maintain an environment conducive to advancing the interests, policies, and objectives of the U.S. government. Strategic communication is synchronized with all means of state power, using coordinated programmes, programmes, themes, information and products. The rudiment of the us "strategic communication" system began at the end of the first world war and took shape after the end of the second world war and at the beginning of the cold war. After world war ii, under the efforts of presidents Truman and Eisenhower, the us government established the national security council, the central intelligence agency and the us information agency respectively from 1947 to 1953, which laid a solid institutional foundation for the strategic communication of the us. To this day, the core of this system is still the Truman doctrine, which divides the world into two opposing camps, the "free world" and the "authoritarian world".

After the end of the cold war, the strategic communication system of the United States was not weakened, but became more sophisticated and efficient. According to a 2004 report by the defense science council of the U.S. department of defense, the structure of this system is roughly illustrated below.

In the above-mentioned strategic communication system, the so-called "public diplomacy" and "international broadcasting" were originally the functions of the United States information agency. In 1999, USIA was dismantled, with its broadcasting functions delegated to the newly created broadcasting regulatory commission and the rest to the state department.

The strategic communication system described in the 2010 national strategic communication framework of the US President is basically consistent with the above description.

In the above-mentioned strategic communication system, the so-called "public diplomacy" and "international broadcasting" are public external propaganda activities directly controlled by American government. "Public affairs" refers to the guidance of domestic public opinion led by American department of defense, namely the war mobilization for the domestic audience. While "information/psychological operations" is an alternative term for psychological warfare, referring to covert communication activities carried out at home and abroad by agencies such as the department of defense and the cia. The fundamental purpose of all these communication activities is to realize the cognitive manipulation of domestic and foreign audiences on specific strategic affairs through information manipulation.

According to the U.S. department of defense, "cognitive manipulation" refers to "the act of communicating and/or blocking specific information to a foreign audience in order to influence their emotional, motivational, and goal inference." Such operations are also directed at officials in the intelligence community and at all levels in order to influence the official assessments of their countries and ultimately to cause their countries to engage in official ACTS in favor of the objectives of the state of origin ".

From this definition, it is not difficult to see that the ultimate purpose of America's strategic communication is to manipulate information to conspire other countries to make actions conducive to the realization of America's own strategic goals.

According to the national strategic communication framework of the President of the United States, the operation of the national strategic communication of the United States is a huge cross-departmental system under the leadership of the President through the national security council, and it is a linkage mechanism of the U.S. diplomatic, military and many intelligence agencies. This linkage mechanism can be briefly described by the following figure.

Given the many covert activities involved in U.S. strategic communications, U.S. official documents made public never mention its tactical manifestations. According to the scattered materials disclosed by foreign researchers, the strategic communication of the United States mainly adopts the following ways:

"White" propaganda refers to the pervasive propaganda carried out by the public activities of the government, such as the public diplomacy led by the state department and the government media represented by "voice of America".

"Black" propaganda refers to the propaganda activities carried out by covert operations. The propaganda activities carried out by the us central intelligence agency, the department of defense and other agencies are mostly included in this category.

"Grey" publicity means that "opinion leaders" and media practitioners in relevant countries are induced to act as spokespersons by means of behind-the-scenes bribe and inducement, so as to publicize the interest demands of the United States and influence the decision-making of relevant governments.

In these three kinds of foreign strategic communication activities, the so-called "black" and "gray" propaganda is basically responsible by the cia, the department of defense and other agencies. According to us researchers, the special operations command of the us department of defense (dod), which has a total budget of $28 billion from 2006 to 2011, carries out extensive internal and external propaganda activities. Of all the covert activities undertaken by the cia, 40% are covert external publicity activities, which cost much more than the sum of other public agencies.

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