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The community pension model in the United States

2019-02-15 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The community pension model in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的社区养老模式。全球社会对社区养老逐渐达成共识,打造养老社区成为趋势。美国的社区居家养老是品质养老的典范,其优质服务和品质生活让人非常向往。美国的社区具备了强大的助老功能,使得美国老人能内安其心、外安其身,所以多数美国老人都会选择社区养老模式。

community pension,美国的社区养老模式,essay代写,作业代写,代写

The global community has gradually reached a consensus on "community for the aged", and it has become a trend to build "community for the aged". American community home endowment is a model of "endowment" quality, the high quality service and quality of life make the person produces the feeling that the old soon in the near future the standing committee of the National People's Congress for the first time review a draft amendment to the rights and interests protection in the elderly, the draft of pension, will be commenting on "the elderly pension rely mainly on family" changed to "old-age home based". The proposal of "home care for the aged" is actually to realize the transformation from traditional family care to modern community care, and the living unit of the elderly from family to community. The essence of home care is community care.

The United States has accumulated rich experience in the construction of home-based elderly care service system. In the United States, the community has a strong function of helping the elderly, so that the elderly can live in peace of mind and peace of mind, and achieve the goal of "safe and sound -- live a happy life -- a good death". Therefore, most of the elderly in the United States choose the mode of community endowment.

Full - time "retirement home", complete facilities, good service. Facilities include clinic, library, computer room, gym, laundry room, emergency call system, etc. Services include dining, cleaning, organizing activities, travel arrangements, etc.

Day care centers operate during the day and return home at night. The center is also well equipped and provides star services. The living room has one bed for each person and one room for each person. There are reading room, health room, activity room and so on. Old people besides need not be one day outside 3 eat worry about, still can read, association, make handicraft, spend old age peacefully.

The U.S. government has a welfare home-based care program: home-care nurses are sent to provide services to the elderly in need at the government's financial expense. Unlike nannies, home-care nurses not only cook, clean and clean for the elderly, but also have nursing knowledge. But only U.S. citizens with permanent green CARDS can enjoy these benefits. Chinese old people who immigrate to the United States usually get a green card through their children. After the old person lives to enrol American nationality, can enjoy all treatment of American old people, every months more than 700 dollars, housing insurance is the business of the country.

The American family caregiver system supports the home-based care model, and a truly high-quality and guaranteed old-age care must achieve the "four-in-one" of material security, care security, medical security and spiritual security. The family nurses are between the domestic workers and the professional nurses. Their main job is to take care of the lonely old people, the disabled and the long-term patients who live at home or in residential nursing centers. For example, there is a nursing center in every district of New York, and caregivers are assigned by the center. The center determines the number of days a caregiver stays at the home of the target based on the health status and self-care ability of the elderly. Under normal circumstances, the elderly health condition is good, and have the ability to take care of themselves, arranged 3 days a week, nursing staff at 8 am, 6 PM work, 8 to 12 hours a day; In case of emergency or accidental injury, the number of working days will be adjusted. For the elderly who are in poor health and have no ability to take care of themselves, carers will accompany them every day. Every day when the carers go to work at the clients' home, they call the nursing center there to report to the nursing center, indicating that they have arrived at the clients' home. At the same time, the management of the nursing center often to the service object home to understand the performance of the nursing staff, and seek the service object of the nursing staff and nursing advice and Suggestions, for the performance of good nursing staff timely praise and reward, for the performance of poor nursing staff to give appropriate criticism, education or punishment. Carers typically earn between $6 and $12 an hour, which is paid by the center and not by the clients.

The United States also has what is now the world's largest nonprofit geriatric care organization, the home care home. There are 5000 community branches in 50 states in the United States, with the largest volunteer team in the country. Every day, 800,000 to 1.2 million volunteers deliver more than 1 million hot meals to the homes of elderly people who have difficulty in moving or cannot solve their meal problems by themselves.

The global community has gradually reached a consensus on "community for the aged", and it has become a trend to build "community for the aged". The American community home care is the model of "quality care", and its high-quality service and quality of life make people feel old faster. The elderly in care pay the fees according to their income, and the difference is made up by the federal government's financial subsidies and social donations, which reflects the government's pension responsibility and the social humanitarian care.

In the United States, retirement communities are generally divided into four categories: self-care community, assisted-living community, special care community, and continuing care retirement community. Generally, the community works closely with hospitals and professional nursing institutions. Among them, the self-care community is mainly for the elderly aged between 70 and 80 who can take care of themselves. The assisted living community mainly targets the elderly over 80 years old who have no major diseases but need to be cared for in daily life. The community provides basic services including catering, entertainment, cleaning, maintenance, emergency response, short distance transportation, regular physical examination, and other life support services, as well as drug administration and special care for alzheimer's disease through payment. Special care community is mainly for the elderly with chronic diseases, postoperative recovery period of the elderly and memory impairment of the elderly. There are professional nurses in the community, providing a variety of nursing and medical services. Continuing care retirement communities are geared towards those who are in their early retirement years and are able to take care of themselves in their current lives, but do not want to be forced to make frequent home changes as a result of a decline in their ability to take care of themselves in the future. In order to realize the continuous nursing service for the elderly, such communities are generally a mixture of self-care units, life assistance units and special care units.

With these four models, life support communities have grown the most in the past few years. Today, there are 1,900 continuing care retirement communities in the United States, but 82 percent are owned by nonprofit organizations. For the operators of for-profit pension communities, the proportion of life assistance community is usually more than 50%, while the proportion of CCRC community is generally less than 10%.

The aging, empty-nest and disability of the elderly population is a common trend. There are more than 20 million senior citizens over the age of 80 in China, and more than 33 million disabled and semi-disabled elderly. There is a growing demand for community care. The elderly can find a sense of security, belonging and intimacy in the familiar community environment. It is of great significance to develop home-based care services by relying on the community, which is the right choice to actively deal with the aging of young children, the empty-nest of the elderly and the incapacitation of the empty nest.

In my opinion, there are three modes of community endowment in China, including home-style community endowment, apartment type community endowment and medical care type community endowment. Most of the elderly care mode belongs to home-based community care, living in traditional communities, care and emotional support for the elderly mainly from family and friends; Apartment-style community pension is a special apartment for the elderly, with complete pension facilities and services, which can provide professional and personalized pension services for the elderly who are completely healthy and have not lost the ability to take care of themselves. Nursing-type community care for the aged belongs to the old-age community that will appear in the social development stage of the elderly. It mainly aims at the elderly who are unable to take care of themselves and adopts the long-term medical care and nursing model to meet the final demand of a good death for the elderly.

Beijing sun city is currently the model of old-age care residential areas in China, as well as the leader of the old-age care industry. It is the pioneer of apartment and membership community old-age care, and the demonstration base among the 300 bases of the project of caring care promoted by the ministry of civil affairs. In 2011, Beijing sun city won the pioneer award of green residential area for the aged, and its design concept of appropriate aging, intelligence and details was affirmed. In Beijing sun city, the medication-oriented, whole-process old-age care residential area has adopted different old-age care strategies for the elderly with different health conditions: most of the young healthy elderly take home-based care, while the semi-self-care elderly and the non-self-care elderly take leasing and medical care as the main modes of old-age care. Sun city hospital invites experts and doctors to make home visits regularly, so that the elderly in yinling apartment can enjoy the best medical services at the door of class a hospital. The premise of high-quality service is high fees, so this pension model is only suitable for the elderly with better economic conditions.

No matter in ancient and modern times or at home and abroad, "safe and sound -- live a happy life -- a good death" is the three steps of providing for the aged, which are also the three core pursuits of elderly life. At present, China has put forward the goal of building a senile friendly city and a livable community for the elderly. Efforts should also be made towards the goal of a senile friendly society, a senile safe and nursing community and a senile happy family. The focus should be on improving the community support ability of home-based care and increasing the supply of community resources for home-based care. In China, it is more necessary to improve the function of supporting the elderly in traditional communities, improve the quality of life and quality of life of ordinary elderly people in home care, and attach importance to the community's medical care and nursing function and spiritual support function.

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