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Higher education policy in the UK

2019-01-03 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Higher education policy in the UK,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的高等教育政策。从政策分析的角度看,自20世纪60年代以来,英国高等教育的发展经历了高等教育模式从传统走向现代,从精英型走向大众型时期;管理体制改革新时期;高等教育多样化与深化改革时期;面向21世纪高等教育发展时期。在不同的发展阶段,高等教育政策都发挥了重要作用,并体现出了不同特点。

Higher education policy,英国高等教育政策,essay代写,作业代写,代写

From the perspective of policy analysis, since the 1960s, the development of British higher education has gone through a period when the mode of higher education changed from traditional to modern and from elite to mass. New era of management system reform; Diversification and deepening reform period of higher education; Facing the development period of higher education in the 21st century, there are four periods. In different stages of development, higher education policies have played an important role and reflected different characteristics.

The UK is one of the first countries in the world to implement higher education. Since the 1960s, a series of important higher education policy texts have been issued, which have exerted a profound impact on the development of higher education in the UK. This article selects the four landmark text, from the perspective of policy text analysis, according to the policy, motivation and background, policy, policy implementation, and evaluation, the framework of the four stages of British higher education reform and development of a historic comb, in order to provide experience and inspiration of the development of higher education of our country.

The landmark policy text of the first phase was the 1963 higher education: report of the committee chaired by Lord Robbins appointed by the prime minister from 1961 to 1963, or Robbins report for short.

At this stage, the direction of British higher education policy is the goal and educational policy of higher education. "Robbins report" pointed out: the goal of higher education is to change the tradition of cultivating missionaries, judges, lawyers and doctors, and provide people with the skills and talents they need to compete in social life. The policy of the country runs a school is to make those who have ability, conditional, the person that has desire to accept higher education obtains the opportunity that accepts higher education above all. The British higher education began to move towards the common class. The education system also bid farewell to the traditional aristocratic mode and entered the mode of modernization, democratization and diversification. Students of different genders, classes and RACES, as well as adult students, part-time students and disabled students enter the university campus, which has become the best symbol of the democratization and diversity of education. British higher education has gradually opened the door only to elites.

The proportion of girls who accepted higher BBBS doubled from 25% to 50% in the 1996-1997 academic year, compared with the 1960s. Ethnic minority students aged 18-20 years account for 12.2% of the total number of students; Disabled students account for 3.6% of the total number of full-time students, part-time students account for 28% of the total number of students, and adult students account for 58%. Among the social strata, 36% are managerial and above, 34% are white-collar workers, and 30% are industrial workers and below. After the publication of "Robbins report", spurred by its "Robbins principle", the British government adopted the policy of linking the number of students with education funds to encourage colleges and universities to expand enrollment and create new institutions of higher learning, which pushed the higher education into the fast track of scale expansion. In the 1997-98 academic year, the number of people receiving higher education increased from 120,000 in 1963 to 1.7 million, the number of institutions of higher learning increased from 30 to 190, and the enrollment rate of relevant age groups increased from 8% to 32%. In addition, the "Robbins principle" attracts more and more young students from continental Europe, Africa and the far east, laying the foundation for the internationalization of British higher education.

The Robbins report is the prediction and planning of the development of higher education in Britain from the 1960s to the mid-1980s. Reporting system is expounded about the goals and principles of higher education, in 1962 the British higher education present situation, the UK higher education compared with other countries of the situation, the forecast for the future development of higher education and the idea, funding, management mechanism and the responsibility of the various departments, and a series of UK higher education reform and development faces significant problems. In the following 30 years, British higher education has undergone profound changes from the school policy, system design and development strategy, to the funding investment mechanism, management and operation mechanism, as well as the establishment, scale, monitoring and evaluation of universities. The government did not fully accept the report's recommendations. "proposals for the creation of six universities and the establishment of five special institutes of science and technology were rejected.

The second phase was marked by the enactment of the education reform act of 1988. The bill is the most drastic change to education in Britain since the education reform act of 1944.

At this stage, the direction of the UK's higher education reform is the management system and the allocation of education funds. Traditionally, the UK has recognised universities as independent and autonomous institutions, not directly under the central government and with limited influence through the university grants committee. In addition, institutions of higher learning that are not part of the "public" part of the university are managed by local education authorities. In terms of education funding, British higher education funding mainly comes from public funding channels, and education funding is allocated through the "university funding committee" which is relatively independent from the government, which leads to the dependence of colleges and universities on government funding and aggravates the financial burden of the government.

Since the education reform law was enacted in 1988, the unified leadership of the central government has been strengthened. We improved the allocation method of higher education funding, reorganized the central university funding committee into the university funding committee and the multi-disciplinary and technical college funding committee, respectively responsible for the corresponding allocation of funding, and encouraged multiple sources of funding. At the same time, the British government encourages and advocates the link between universities and society, and plays the role of higher education in promoting economic and technological development. "The curriculum and teaching contents should be socialized and applied. While helping enterprises solve practical problems, teachers should also be rewarded with substantial benefits. The rewards teachers receive in scientific research achievements and production practices of enterprises outside the school shall be owned by the teachers themselves. In this way, teachers' initiative to participate in practice, in turn, provides convenience and possibility for imparting the latest knowledge and technology. At the same time, the 1988 education reform law abolished lifetime tenure for newly hired university teachers.

In terms of objectives, the education reform law of 1988 lays particular emphasis on serving economic development more effectively and establishing closer ties with the business community. In terms of education, it is suggested to expand enrollment, plan to increase the enrollment rate of female and over-age students, and make entrance exams flexible and diverse. In terms of education institutional structure, the authority of local education bureaus was abolished, university funding committees were abolished, and university funding committees and multi-disciplinary technical colleges and other college funding committees were established. According to McLean, "every reform of the education reform act fundamentally changes education practices that have persisted for a long time since at least the 1960s. The extent of this change can be measured by outlining each provision in the context of practice over the past 25 years. Various reforms have caused varying degrees of response, among which the biggest response is to abolish the tenure system for newly hired university teachers. This reform program has the fundamental characteristics of changing higher education, and is "a major shift of education focus in Britain after the war". It is generally regarded as the most radical education reform in Britain in this century.

The third stage was marked by the publication on 23 July 1997 of the "higher education in learning societies" advisory report, the deerying report.

At this stage, the direction of higher education is the diversity of education institutions and the establishment of a new education funding mechanism. The Deere English report to support the diversity between institutions of higher education, and think this diversity to meet after the expansion of higher education enrollment scale of student group, to fulfill the diversified demands of proposal should reflect the diversity in terms of funding needs, and give support for this kind of demand, but diversity never means to reduce the standard or quality. In the deerying report, 22 of the many proposals on the reform of the UK's higher education are aimed at the funding of education. For example, it is suggested to broaden the sources of education funding. Establish a new mechanism for raising higher education funds.

Set up a new mechanism for raising funds for higher education. The government further increased the investment in the higher education, established the industrial cooperative development fund, and attracted funds from the industrial sector to finance the higher education; Charging tuition fees from the 1998 academic year; The government, funding agencies, quality assurance agency, universities and scientific research institutions have further strengthened cooperation, adjusted the flow of funds through legislation, evaluation and other means, reformed the funding conditions and project management mode, and improved the use efficiency of education funds. The function of the higher education quality assurance agency has been strengthened. The quality assurance department is responsible for the management of quality assurance, public information, standard recognition and certificate framework, and for the development of operable standards for higher education institutions to apply for government funding; The role of higher education in local and regional development has been strengthened. Institutions of higher learning support local development through scientific research and consultation, meet the needs of the labor market for professionals, attract investment and provide new employment opportunities, support the lifelong learning needs of local communities and contribute to improving people's quality of life as cultural centers. Local governments and businesses are committed to helping students and teachers in institutions of higher learning develop entrepreneurial capacities that enable them to better serve the local community.

Deerying report has drawn up the blueprint for the UK's higher education in the 21st century, proposed the main contradictions and problems existing at present, and made the main measures to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Deerying report believes that since the publication of Robbins report, external factors have a profound impact on the development of higher education in the UK, and these external factors will have a greater impact on the development of higher education in the next 20 years. Science and technology and political factors have accelerated the pace of world economic integration. With the enhancement of economic competition, education and training have attracted more and more attention. Economic development relies more and more on knowledge. Economic development requires higher education to cultivate more technical, knowledgeable and comprehensive talents, so as to promote the development of scientific research. Undoubtedly, the deerying report is widely regarded as the first comprehensive review and reflection of the British higher education and the outline document of strategic thinking for future development since the Robbins report.

The landmark text of the fourth stage is the higher education white paper -- the future of higher education published in 2003, which is an important part of the national development strategy formulated by the British government in the 21st century to face the knowledge-based economy, society and globalization.

In this stage, building first-class research and ensuring first-class teaching level is the primary policy direction of the British government's higher education. As the white paper puts it: "research lays the foundation for innovation in the long run and is central to economic growth, productivity and quality of life". And emphasize that the research here is not only refers to science and technology research, social science and the arts and humanities research can also benefit economic development. In addition, a solid research foundation can help Britain keep pace with international development and participate in international competition and cooperation. The white paper points out that teaching is at the core of achieving higher education goals. Colleges and universities should further study the essence and methods of teaching to ensure the improvement of teaching level. Teachers with high teaching quality should be rewarded accordingly. It is the right of all students to receive a high level of education. They have the right and need to know as much as possible about the major they choose and the school they attend.

The government will increase research programmes by 1.25bn in 2005-2006; Encouraging cooperative research; Increasing investment in first-class departments and universities; Support new research projects; Reward researchers for outstanding contributions; Create a new arts and humanities research council. The government will continue to support and encourage higher education institutions in collaboration with the industrial and commercial sectors; Establishing partnerships between institutions of higher learning and local authorities; Promote the integration of business and university related departments. Additional funding will be allocated to modernise teaching and reward outstanding teachers and students for establishing a new national body to improve teaching - the teaching quality institute. To provide students from different family backgrounds, especially children from low-income families with the opportunity to accept higher education. The government will continue to be the main funder of universities, but universities themselves have more freedom to absorb new investment channels, and the government encourages multi-channel investment.

The future of higher education is another big reform of higher education after the thatcher era. It changed from "reduce education input -- marketization -- charge -- expansion of scale and economic orientation" in thatcher's era to "increase education input -- marketization -- increase of charge standard -- expansion of scale and national competitiveness orientation". It is conceivable that this new policy will play a greater role. It not only emphasizes marketization, but also increases government input. Education resources will be increased and enriched in an unprecedented way, which will directly affect the future of higher education in Britain. At the same time, the white paper takes the measures of key construction to ensure the popularization of higher education, and at the same time to develop first-class research and teaching by funding research universities and first-class departments and establishing high-quality teaching promotion centers. The white paper stresses improving the quality of higher education, strengthening links with the economic community and enhancing Britain's competitiveness. It is advocated that colleges and universities should improve their research capabilities, open more scientific and technological enterprises, provide technical support and consulting services to more enterprises, and offer vocational oriented basic degree courses.

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