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A village warden in medieval England

2019-01-02 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- A village warden in medieval England,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中世纪英国的村规监督员。村规监督员是中世纪英国村庄共同体的重要执法者,是保证村庄共同体正常运转的重要成员。为了保证正常而有序的生产活动,每个村庄共同体都制定了详细的村规,并选举村规监督员,对成员的日常生活进行监督管理。这些监督员不仅在共同体中扮演着执法者的角色,而且在组织农业生产、管理畜牧业、调节共同体成员之间的纠纷上也起到了重要的作用。

village warden,英国村规监督员,essay代写,作业代写,代写

There are many foreign studies on village community, such as oort, Owen and bloom, etc., which have a lot of discussion. However, these scholars mainly analyze the village community as a whole, so they focus on the internal structure of the village community, as well as the supervision and management of production and life. The famous scholar dale paid more attention to the profound influence of village community as a spiritual legacy on western European society. Therefore, although the research results in this area are quite abundant, the special discussion on the village regulation supervisors has not yet appeared. Home, although there are many scholars have a detail on medieval villages and farms, but fewer monographs, involving the village community in addition to professor Zhao Wenhong in its "in the middle ages, the village autonomy" and "manor court, village regulations and in the middle ages, the" community of the Commons "is involved, the home is no special detailed, more no problem discussed in this paper centre. Therefore, it is necessary to make an in-depth analysis of some relevant issues, with the intention of replacing points with aspects, so that we can have a deeper and comprehensive understanding of the medieval British village community.

Records of the election of overseers can be found in the early records of the manor house, and the practice is, no doubt, quite old. The earliest surviving records of the election of the overseers date back to 1273. In the early years of rural communities, monitors generally held elections when special precautions were needed. As early as Anglo-Saxon times, for example, there were sheriffs in the villages. As a public security unit, the village independently assumes public responsibilities in local public security management. In the middle ages, the policy of relying on local communities such as villages to maintain public security was still implemented. In 1242, king Henry iii of England issued a decree to strengthen public security throughout the country. Accordingly, every night, any village should arrange 4-6 people on guard duty. The sheriff also checks to see if each village has appointed one or two sheriffs, and if each of the hundred districts has a sheriff. The post was originally established in 1242 and is the only official responsible for public security in the grass-roots rural areas. These early sheriffs, in effect, were the early supervisors of the village community. While in charge of social security, they also need to deal with some public affairs related to villages in accordance with common law, supervise the behavior of community members and charge them with illegal behaviors.

Later, with the development of rural society in medieval Britain, new situations kept emerging. One or two magistrates alone could not meet the needs of the village community to manage daily life. At the same time, the Lord also hoped to maintain a good relationship between his tenants, so as to facilitate the management and management. As a result, by the 14th century, the election of overseers was so common that records of it were kept in almost all manor records. In 31 records of estates in 10 different parts of Britain, for example, almost half of village rules involve the election of supervisors. Under the village rules established by the various communities, almost all the words "in order to ensure the implementation of the above laws and accuse the perpetrators, elect someone as a supervisor, for which they have taken an oath" are written. But in the 15th century, about the election of supervisors is ground to a halt: the wood is in the sea in 1433, Newton lundgren will is in 1406, new in 1416, in holden's area is 1425, lawton area is 1476.

Secondly, about the election time of monitors. Each community may elect according to its own needs and actual conditions, and there are no uniform provisions. But before the 14th century elections were generally held in July and August, mainly before the autumn harvest. The purpose is to strengthen the management of autumn harvest, in order to prevent the emergence of autumn harvest crime. In highwood, for example, prior to 1385, elections for supervisors were generally held at the end of July or early August, with little change; In Newton lundgren will manor was conducted at the end of June. But after the 14th century, the election time of village community monitors gradually changed. With the rise of sheep farming, the issue of grazing is more pressing than the autumn harvest, so elections are usually held in April or may. "After 1350, violations of village rules on grazing land occurred frequently: their calves or ponies trampled their neighbors' fields; They drive sheep into the fields before large animals graze. They drive their livestock into the field before it is cleared. Because of this, strengthening the implementation of relevant village regulations has become very necessary. From this, we can also see that the changes in the social environment have a great impact on the village community. In fact, the election of overseers, like the making of village rules, was not a matter of daily concern to the manor courts. As a result, there are few records of this in the records of the manor court. For example, from 1290 to 1423, only 42 supervisors' accusations were recorded in the files of highwood, and mainly from 1324 to 1354. In other manor court, Newton lundgren, new in holden, fatigue and Ramsey manor, the same charges are rarely and haphazard.

As can be seen from the existing records of the estate, the number of supervisors generally recorded is no more than nine. At highwood, the number of supervisors is typically seven to eight, with nine at a time. After 1385, the number of supervisors was reduced to three to four or even two. About Newton ? lundgren will manor monitors we know very little of the community itself didn't leave any information, but we can from the rolls of manor court found some small things. There, the number of supervisors is usually 4-8, once 9. If we cut off a certain period of time to investigate, we will find that the number of supervisors in the records of the manor estate between 1329 and 1335 has changed to 3 in 1329, 6 in 1330, 4 in 1331, 6 in 1332, 4 in 1333 and 7 in 1335. In the file there was a man called John gerrard, serving for four times, each serving the other two 3 times. In holden, six monitors were elected at first, but by 1370 the number had dwindled to four, by 1404 it was three, and by 1415 it was one. This also fully reflects an important change in the rural economy, from which we can clearly see the adjustment of the village rules themselves. In newington, there is a rule that two monitors are elected for every four villages. In horton, in 1307 there were 11 supervisors, but a century later there were only four. In wobbles, there were nine in 1378 and four in 1440. In general, the number of supervisors has been decreasing since the 14th century.

Maitland once pointed out: "the village community is made up of serfs, and free farmers are not subject to common law and village regulations. However, in some cases, free people's recognition of village rules was also recorded. Other examples show that village communities include free farmers.

The free peasants in the middle ages, their main interests are reflected in the production process, so they are more dominated by their economic interests than by their legal status. For example, the free man had no obligation to attend the court of the manor, but because the court of the manor was often involved in the handling of some public affairs, it was difficult not to contact with it, so the free man and viran appeared in the court of the manor at the same time. As ms nelson puts it: "perhaps we exaggerate the importance of the role of legal status in the middle ages." We can illustrate the problem in two farm records. At highwood, in the presence of the Lord, and with the unanimous consent of all the inhabitants, two village rules were made and passed. One of them, none of them can pay a hired hand in a field with sheaves of wheat, that is, if you can't pay him in a field with sheaves of wheat, you can do it in your own warehouse. All landowners agree that there is no distinction of status. This prevents the landowner from having his bundle of wheat stolen by someone else. Another rule is that men and women, as long as they have the ability to work, must harvest the crops instead of picking them. The village rule has special benefits for those who own land, and the larger the acre, the greater the benefits. In the records of the manor, we can also see that the free farmers actively participate in the formulation of village regulations. At the monastery of durheim in the 14th century, there were villages that could elect a village council of four or six members, some of whom were free farmers and were responsible for drafting village rules before the next meeting of the villagers; At highwood, in 1335, "it was agreed by all the free farmers and by all the inhabitants of the village that no one should go to pick peas from other people's fields where they had been sown. If anyone violates, a fine of six pence is imposed on the Lord. Village regulations like this account for a considerable proportion of all agricultural village regulations. From this we can see that the interests of landowners in agricultural production are basically the same. The provisions of these village regulations have the same benefits for both free farmers and conventional sharecroppers, that is, they can minimize their economic losses.

In addition, we found many cases in which free farmers were selected as supervisors of the village community. The earliest overseers of village regulations were almost always serfs, and few free farmers were elected. For example, in highwood, before the 13th century, almost all of the village superintendents were willan, wilgott or semi-wilgott. By the 13th century, we're going to start to see that some of these free farmers were also elected to oversee village regulations. Richard Ross is a free, for example, farmers, he has a house and three quarters will land, in 1339, 1340 and 1341, was elected the village of monitors, in 1343, he also became a inspection officer. In Newton lundgren will village, there are two supervisors is referred to as "whelan," not a free farming was elected to the supervisor of the records, may be there is no free farm life. In newington, we found, through the records of a manor house, a man named Henry, who had been chosen as overseer in July 1334, but because he owned the Lord's half wilgotts share, he had to pay the Lord an inheritance tax of eleven shillings and six pence on a bull. And his wife, marguerite, was going to do some work for the Lord. So his identity is very likely to be a veran. In the 1416 file has this one: "William Berwick ella and John midfielder di was elected the village where the supervisor, and ask the villagers in the next time manor court elevate the name to the housekeeper. By the provisional decree of 1310 or the records of the hundred estates and the records of the court of manor, we are certain to find that they are a wilgotts or a half-wilgotts, to bear the rent of the land and to serve in the servitude of villand. Thus it can be seen that the overseers here were also undertaken by serfs.

From the above discussion, we can see that the supervisors of the village community are diverse, mainly serfs. However, as a landowner, free farmers are inevitably related to the village community due to their economic interests. They also participate in the formulation of community village rules, and actively assume the supervision of village rules, so that their behavior is gradually incorporated into the village community. Therefore, the members of the village community in medieval England were not only made up of serfs, but also free landowners.

The question of whether village community supervisors are paid varies from region to region, but in general, they are different from the village officials of the manor. Since the officials of the manor were mainly in the service of the Lord, such as the warden or keeper, their main duty was to protect the Lord's fields and pastures from encroachment. If anyone violated the law, they prosecuted him in the court of the manor and punished him. Their reward is part of the arable land. Some grain, or part of the fine. Although many village overseers also served the Lord, they were more voluntary and did not receive any payment, as was the case with the overseers in the autumn. But in some areas, supervisors are rewarded in part for their good work. At lawton manor, for example, the overseers, magistrates, and all the inhabitants present at court in the autumn agreed that no one should work during the holidays or at night, or pay a fine of six pence to the Lord. If such violations are rare, the supervisor is rewarded with 3p for his work as a guard. This village rule was reiterated again in 1401.

In general, the supervisors of the village community are mostly unpaid, and they are more obligated to serve the community. Because of this, many people are reluctant to take on the "thankless" work, so that they sometimes ask the community to provide them with corresponding compensation. In 1303, for example, two woodland supervisors in highwood, in the court of the manor, demanded that the tenants of each manor pay them a quart of grain for their wages. The villagers gathered in the court of the manor and refused their request. And free men's jurors and others point out that there was no previous practice in villages of paying supervisors. The villagers never give anything to the forest warden unless the whole village agrees. In their opinion, the forest supervisor, like the village head and the warden, serves mainly for the Lord rather than the whole community. Therefore, they should pay the salary by the farm itself, which has no direct relationship with the village community. The Lord has no choice but to pay the salary. Twenty years later, the Lord no longer provided for the overseer of the forest, but required the customary tenant farmer to provide for them. Conventional sharecroppers claim that the overseers are elected from Wieland, which holds half the land, and that the overseers are rewarded with a cut of half the rent and a small piece of green land called a "forest meadow". But in practice, except in one particular case, the customary tenant farmer never paid the forester any salary. And the exception was because one of the foresters had lost his ability to work, and in that case, the community stipulated that each wilgott was to be given a bushel of wheat, and each half-wilgott was to be given a half-bushel of wheat. But since then, although six different people have been elected forest wardens, the customary sharecroppers have given nothing.

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