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Social assistance policies in Britain

2018-12-29 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Social assistance policies in Britain,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的社会救助政策。在新工党政府上台后,英国的社会救助制度迎来了前所未有的重大变革,后来出台的《社会保障法案》更是创造了三种社会救助津贴。政府提供缴费型求职者津贴和非缴费型的求职者津贴,以应对不断增加的失业人口并缓解失业家庭的贫困。其中的非缴费型求职者津贴属于社会救助津贴,它附带了较为严格的家庭财产调查和就业行为调查,强调申请人必须积极努力寻找工作。

Social assistance,英国社会救助政策,essay代写,作业代写,代写

From its formal establishment in 1948 to the present, the social assistance system in Britain has gone through three important development periods. The period from 1966 to the late 1970s was the period of perfection; It has been a period of change since the 1980s. After the new Labour government came into power in 1997, Britain's social assistance system ushered in unprecedented major changes. During the period of 1979-1996 the conservative ruling, the British government has to a certain degree of social relief system reform, the social security act of 1986 created the three kinds of social assistance benefits: income tax credit and housing support, family allowance, job seekers allowance system have been introduced in 1996, the government provide job seekers allowance and non payment type job seekers allowance, in response to rising unemployment population and alleviate the poverty of the family. Among them, the non-contributive job-seeker's allowance belongs to social assistance allowance, which is accompanied by a relatively strict survey of family property and employment behavior, emphasizing that applicants must actively strive to find jobs. These reform measures were continuously improved and perfected during the reign of new Labour party.

In post-war Britain, unemployment has always been one of the main reasons for people's lives falling into poverty. After the new Labour government came into power, in order to promote the employment of domestic workers, it began to implement its "New Deal" in January 1998. The so-called "New Deal" is a series of measures taken by the government to help unemployed people move to new jobs, get rid of the dependence on the welfare system, and change "save others" to "save yourself". Therefore, this policy is also known as "from welfare to work plan".

In May 1998, the new Labour government submitted its first budget report since it took office, which explicitly stated that the family tax credit should be replaced by the family tax credit for working families. In October 1999, the working family tax credit officially replaced the family tax credit. The creation of the working family tax credit is a clear indication of the new Labour government's policy intent: to raise the incomes of low-income families with at least one adult employed; Encourage adults from unemployable households to enter the Labour market. The creation of the working family tax credit was apparently influenced by figures from the UK Treasury in 1998, which showed that one in five working age family members in the UK had no job in 1997, double the proportion in 1979. With employment so low, reform is inevitable.

In October 1999, the working family tax credit officially replaced the original family tax credit. The new Labour government's working family tax credit aims to cover 1.5m low-income working families, more than twice as many as the family tax credit. The working family tax credit includes a basic allowance of 48.8 pounds per week plus an additional allowance that increases with the age of the child and reaches a maximum of 25.4 pounds per week when the child reaches the age of 16 to 18. Applicants for the working family tax credit must work no less than 16 hours a week, but those who work more than 30 hours a week receive an additional 10.80 pounds a week.

When the working family tax credit scheme was introduced in November 1999, it covered 960,000 families, with more single parents than couples, averaging 66 pounds a week. Since then, the number of recipients has been rising steadily, and by May 2002, it had covered 1.3 million families and 2.62 million children, with an average deduction of 86 pounds per week. On the whole, the number of recipients is not small, and the level of benefits is not low for most recipients. As a result, the cost of tax credits rose from 1.097 billion pounds in 1999-2000 to 5.525 billion pounds in 2001-2002. The goal of the working family tax credit is to increase economic stimulus to encourage employment and ensure that employed people have a minimum level of income, thereby eliminating poverty.

The working family tax credit targets low-income families with one or two adults who do not have a job. The average family gets an extra 24 pounds a week from its weight compared with the family tax credit. The creation of the working family tax credit is a clear indication of the new Labour government's policy intent: to raise the incomes of low-income families with at least one adult employed; Encourage adults from unemployable households to enter the Labour market.

In 2003, the working family tax credit was replaced by the working family tax credit, which is still targeted at low-income families. Unlike the working family tax credit, it does not require families to have dependent children. The work tax credit requires applicants to have a full-time job. Applicants over the age of 25 can apply for it if they work more than 30 hours a week. Of course, for families with children and people with disabilities, only one adult in the family who works more than 16 hours a week can apply. The work tax credit is a sum of scores for a number of factors. These factors include: basic factors, couple or single parent family factors, 30-hour factors, disabled persons factors, severely disabled persons factors, re-entry into work after the age of 50, etc.

In October 2003, the pension subsidy plan was formally implemented, which includes two parts: guarantee subsidy and savings subsidy. Guaranteed benefits are income support schemes for people over the age of 60 and will be cut if individuals save more than 10,000 pounds. The policy goal of the savings subsidy is to encourage the behavior of saving, so that the elderly with certain savings can get better policy treatment. The applicable person is the pensioner over 65 years old, when the applicant's income reaches a certain level, he will lose the qualification to receive.

The British new Labour government has adopted comprehensive measures and plans to achieve its goal of eliminating child poverty, including: employment of parents through work-based welfare programs; Cash support, the more poor families benefit; Improve public services and promote equality of opportunity. Child Tax Credit is the largest and most important cash welfare program for poor children and teenagers in the UK. It combines a number of previous cash welfare programs for minors, and the internal revenue service decides the amount of Tax Credit according to the family income.

Until 2008, single parents can apply for income support until their youngest child turns 16. Since the employment rate of single parents in Britain is the lowest in Europe, only 56% in 2006, compared with 80% in Denmark. In an attempt to encourage single parents to work, the government has stipulated that from October 2008, single parents will have to find a job after their youngest child turns 12 and apply for job-seeker's allowance if they cannot find a job. Starting October 25, 2010, the minimum age for children was reduced to seven years. Since October 2010, the age standard for the youngest child has fallen back to five. In October 2008, the new Labour government began to implement the employment and assistance allowance system at the same time, replacing the original incapacity allowance and income support, and the beneficiaries were those who could not work due to health reasons. Similar to job-seeker's allowance, employment and assistance allowance are also divided into two categories: contributory and non-contributory. The non-contributory employment and assistance allowance is social assistance and requires a family planning survey. The applicant's bank deposit shall not exceed 16,000 pounds. The calculation method of non-contributory employment and assistance allowance is similar to that of income support. Social security branch calculates the standard pay forehead of this family according to the specific family state of applicant, the special circumstance that basis applicant gives on this basis, add additional pay additionally. Once the applicant has received the non-contributory employment and assistance allowance, he/she can no longer apply for income support, job-seeker's allowance and pension subsidy.

There are many deep-seated reasons for the new labor government to implement these new social assistance policies, which mainly include the following four aspects:

First, the influence of prime minister Tony Blair's idea of "second-generation welfare". Mr Blair points out that second-generation welfare is about giving people support, not just handouts. "The experience of the past 50 years," the new Labour government wrote in its green book, "the new contract for welfare", published in 1998, "has shown that simple relief leads to a life of dependency." "Our goal is to promote a cultural transition between welfare applicants, employers and government workers -- each with its own rights and obligations," the green paper added. The rationale behind this cultural shift is simple: for most people of working age, the fastest way out of poverty is through employment. Therefore, they must master the skills required by employers. However, the existing social assistance system not only cannot help or encourage them to do so, but also ACTS as a hindrance. Soon, the new labor government implemented the policy of "from welfare to work", encouraging different social groups to get out of the dilemma of life through their own active employment, and changing from passively waiting for the government's assistance to actively "save themselves".

Secondly, the temporary assistance program for poor families introduced by the United States in 1996 had a direct impact on the British New Deal program. The program, which targets single parents of school-age children, requires them to work more than 30 hours a week to qualify for poverty assistance, which is funded by the central government. The maximum time limit for receiving subsidies is 60 months, and states may shorten the time for receiving subsidies according to specific circumstances. At the same time, the welfare reform of Sweden has also given new labor party an important enlightenment, Sweden provides full training or employment opportunities for the unemployed, and to participate in training, education or actively looking for work as a necessary condition to enjoy welfare, for those who do not participate in training without reason will be given a certain penalty to reduce welfare treatment. Therefore, the New Deal plan was developed by the British new Labour government on the basis of the successful experience of other western countries, rather than the initiative of Britain.

Third, the rise of poverty and the emergence of zero-employment families. In the 1980s and 1990s, poverty rose sharply and inequality deteriorated sharply. In 1995-1996, 1\5 people in Britain were living in poverty, compared with less than 1\10 people in 1979. The fruits of economic growth in the 1980s were not Shared among families; most of the gains went to the wealthiest families, while the poor did not benefit from them. In this trend, the main victims are children -- in 1979, 1\12 children lived in poor families. By 1995 to 1996, nearly 1\3 children were living in poor families. In the 1980s and 1990s, a completely new phenomenon appeared in British society: zero-employment families. Work has become polarized, with more dual-earner families and zero-earner families. In 1968, only 4% of households had zero employment, compared with 6.2% in 1975, 10.6% in 1981 and 16.7% in 1995. During this period, single-parent families were at the highest risk of becoming zero-employment families, followed by bachelors.

Finally, social security, especially social assistance spending, has overwhelmed the British government's finances. After the war, social security expenditure in Britain was mainly composed of three parts, namely, non-contributory social relief fund that required family planning survey, contributory social insurance fund, and non-contributory general welfare fund that did not require family planning survey. Social insurance basically has annuities and unemployed insurance gold, welfare of general benefit type public welfare basically is to point to disabled person allowance, children allowance to wait. In 1979, these three expenditures accounted for 16%, 75% and 9% of the total social security expenditure in the UK. However, in 1997, these three expenditures accounted for 35%, 47% and 18% of the total social security expenditure respectively. In 1949, social security expenditure accounted for 13.5 percent of the government's fiscal expenditure, but by 1997, this proportion had risen to 32 percent, making it the largest proportion of fiscal expenditure in the UK, almost equal to twice the expenditure on national health and social services or three times the education expenditure. When new Labour came to power in 1997, social security spending had overwhelmed the British government's finances, which was the most direct reason for Blair's government to implement welfare reform.

The statistics on the unemployment rate are undoubtedly the most convincing on the implementation effect of the new Labour government's New Deal. Unemployment has been falling in Britain since 2001. In 2005, Britain's unemployment rate fell to 4.8%, a low level among European Union countries. At present, the number of unemployed people in Britain remains around 1.5 million, and the unemployment rate remains around 5%, far lower than the average unemployment rate of 10% in eu countries. In Britain, nearly 2 million more people were employed in 2004 than in 1997, and the number of long-term unemployed fell by three-quarters, basically eradicating the long-term unemployment problem among young people. At the same time, the number of people receiving job-seeker's allowance fell from 163,300 in 1997 to 53,000 in 2005.

By the time of the 2001 election, unemployment was below 1m for the first time since 1975, and long-term unemployment was lower than at any time since 1979. The "welfare-to-work" philosophy behind the New Deal programme is the same as that of conservative governments over the past decade, except that the concept of welfare has been broadened. It covers not only the general unemployed, but also special groups, such as single parents and people with disabilities.

The social assistance policies of the new Labour government also played a role in reducing poverty, but the effect was less obvious than in reducing unemployment. According to the 2001 statistics, since the new Labour government came into power in 1997, although the number of relatively poor people living below 60% of the average income has decreased by 1 million, there are still 12.9 million people living in poverty, accounting for 23% of the total population.

Objectively speaking, the new Labour government the implementation of the policy of "from welfare to work" is an effective, since the late 1990 s, Britain's unemployment rate has been on a declining trend, significantly lower than the eu average unemployment, during the 2002-2005 than even recognized with the world's best Labour market is low in the United States. But when it comes to employment, the rosy Numbers don't mask some actual inequality or inequality. Between 1971 and 2001, the number of men in the Labour force in the UK increased slowly from 16 million to 16.2 million, while the number of women in the Labour force increased sharply from 10 million to 13 million. The official estimate is that this number will increase to 14 million by 2001. Official statistics also show a far higher proportion of men in the Labour force working full time than women, reflecting the inequalities in the UK Labour market.

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