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The formation of federalism in the United States

2018-12-28 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The formation of federalism in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国联邦制的形成。1787年,美国宪法创造了一种新的政治制度模式,即联邦制。联邦制的创设是制度变迁的体现。当时联邦宪法提出了四条基本原则,明确划定了新的中央政府即联邦政府与州政府的权力关系。

federalism,美国的联邦制,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Institutional change refers to the process of system replacement, transformation and transaction, which is the process of combining new system with suiting and discarding old system. Institutional change is a dynamic process. In this process, it involves who initiates the system change, why to carry on the system change, how to carry on the system change, the effect of the system change and so on. According to north, an American scholar of institutional change theory, "institutional change is the way in which institutions are created, changed and broken along with the changes in practice. The parameters of structural change include technology, population, property rights and government's control over resources, etc., which constitute the source of long-term economic growth."

Generally speaking, there are two causes of institutional change, namely exogenous change and endogenous change. Exogenous change refers to the specific institutional change caused by some social factors that do not belong to the system. These factors are accumulated in the long-term evolution process. These cumulative variables can be economic, political, military or even ideological, such as population growth and migration, technological progress, rise and spread of religions, etc. Endogenous change refers to the evolution caused by the incoordination within the system. The root of institutional change lies in the internal of the system, which exists in the conflicts of interests among the actors living under the system. The change of external conditions can accelerate or delay the process of institutional change only through the influence of internal factors.

The theory of institutional change can reveal the law behind the transformation from one system to another, and provide theoretical guidance for us to study the replacement and innovation of institutions. The development of society is a microcosm of the history of institutional development and the history of institutional change. The theory of institutional change has unique explanatory power for the innovation, replacement and transformation of institutions. In the following paragraphs, the author will specifically analyze the formation of American federalism based on the theory of institutional change.

In the early days of the founding of the United States, the confederate system was practiced. The articles of confederation, which came into force in 1781 with the approval of 13 states, marked the United States as a confederate state. But the confederate system was not appropriate for the United States. The U.S. constitution of 1787 created a new political system, federalism. The creation of federalism is the embodiment of institutional change. We can analyze the formation of American federalism from the perspective of the causes of institutional change.

Exogenous change refers to the specific institutional change caused by some social factors that do not belong to the system. After the independence of the United States, the confederacy was established at the beginning. The states had great powers, which allowed them to issue money, levy taxes, recruit and maintain troops. The central government has no other power than diplomatic and postal power, and the central government has no binding force on local governments. With the further development of American society and economy, the disadvantages of the confederacy system appeared. As the states are independent from each other, market segmentation, currency and tax system are not unified, and trade frictions among the members are serious, while the central government has no right to interfere in coordination, which greatly hinders the common economic interests of all member states. At the same time, it also affects national identity and unity. "I learned that an independent America is not made up of separate and distant territories, but of a united, vast, fertile nation, part of the free children of the west."

Think from the Angle of endogenous change. Endogenous change refers to the evolution caused by the incoordination within the system. The root of institutional change lies in the internal of the system, which exists in the conflicts of interests among the actors living under the system. The confederate system implemented in the early days of the founding of the United States seriously restricted the effective development of political, economic and military affairs of all member states. Therefore, the call for the establishment of a strong central government became increasingly louder. The constitutional convention of Philadelphia in 1787 accomplished this historic mission. The federal constitution sets forth four basic principles which clearly delineate the new central government namely the power relationship between the federal government and the state government.

The principle of decentralization of power led by the power of the federal government shall be implemented. This new principle of decentralization reconstructs the power framework of the United States and is conducive to maintaining the unity of the country. The principle of joint ownership between the federal government and the state government shall be implemented. The exercise of common rights makes up for the separation caused by decentralization and strengthens the rationality of the exercise of state power. The principle of off-limits powers of the federal and state governments shall be implemented. The use of prohibition becomes a restriction mechanism in the American federal system. Because of its existence, the power of the federal government will not expand indefinitely and develop into centralized politics, thus protecting the interests of the states. The state government will not be divided into different states, which will lead to the disintegration of the country, thus effectively maintaining the unity of the country. The principle that the federal constitution and federal laws are the supreme laws shall be applied. Under this provision, all state laws that contravene the constitution and the laws of the union are null and void.

Federalism ended the chaos of the confederacy and put the operation of state power on the right track. This new model of political system is highly regarded as "the most successful reconciliation between freedom and absolute rule". We can see the trace of institutional change in the formation of American federalism. Of course, federalism in the United States is not static. As Woodrow Wilson said, "the relationship between the state and the federal government is the most important issue in our constitutional system... In fact, it is impossible for any generation to solve this problem, because this problem is constantly developing, and every new period of political and economic development has added new content to it, making it a new problem. This sentence says the essence of institutional change theory.

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