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Indian colonial rule

2018-12-05 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Indian colonial rule,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了印度殖民统治。印度殖民地是由东印度公司按照英国国王授予的特许状而建立的,东印度公司在征服孟加拉后,就由公司建立政权,伦敦的东印度公司董事会成了英国在印度的最高权力机构,从方针政策的制定到殖民地政府文职官员的任命,都由东印度公司行使权力,在印度的殖民政府是它的执行机构。

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In the 32 years from the independence of the United States to the end of the Napoleonic wars, it was a period of great adjustment of British imperial thought and policy, as well as the formation of British colonial rule over India. The formation of the British colonial new rule system in India was one of the biggest differences between the new empire and the old empire. It had a great impact on the development and growth of the British empire and the British rule over the indigenous colonies.

Colonial India is by the east India company established in accordance with the king of England granted the charter, the east India company after the conquest of Bengal, regime is established by the company, the board of directors of the east India company in London became the supreme authority of the British in India, from the policy set to the colonial government appointed civilian officials, the exercise of power by the east India company, the colonial government in India is that its actuators. But the king's charter also gave companies a two-year warning period until it was withdrawn if they acted against the national interest. Therefore, before the parliament enacted the adjustment act in 1773, the British government did not have a set of policies governing the Indian colonies. However, in the late 18th century, the development of the British empire forced Britain to reform the rule of the Indian colonies.

In the process of conquering India, east India company exposed various ugly phenomena, which seriously damaged the image of British government and British interests. The "seven years' war" was the turning point of the British invasion of India. By 1765, the east India company had expelled other European competitors in India. However, a variety of ugly phenomena have also emerged:

Once in power, the east India company was eager to use it for maximum plunder. The most convenient and ready-made way for a company to conquer a place is to plunder the state Treasury and blackmail the nobles. The staff of the company got greedy and blackmailed everywhere and accumulated a lot of money.

British and Indian millionaires buy seats at home, form cliques and influence domestic politics. Most east India company employees in India return home rich. When they return to Britain, these anglo-indian tycoons often buy large amounts of real estate and use their ill-earned gains in India to buy seats in parliament, which in turn increases the importance of Indian interest groups in domestic politics.

Driven by various factors, the east India company continued to wage expansion wars in order to obtain more profits. Through a series of expansion wars, Britain's dominance in India was continuously expanded and its position was further consolidated. The company's employees also looted a lot of money, and the east India company was heavily in debt for this. In 1771 the debts of the east India company amounted to 1.5 million pounds.

Indiscriminate looting has brought great disaster to the Indian people. The plunder by the east India company has left a beautiful and rich India in ruins. From 1769 to 1770, the most serious famine occurred in Bangladesh, with 10 million people starving to death. One third of the population in the province went hungry and one third of the arable land was deserted. Still, the east India company's plunder of India did not diminish.

There has long been a backlash in Britain against the corrupt rule of the east India company in India. The brutal colonial rule of the east India company has become the fortress of the old colonial system. To put an end to these corruption phenomena, it is necessary to change the original colonial policies and limit the actions of the east India company. The British government should assume the rule over India and punish the corruption of the east India company with the British laws.

Secondly, the center of gravity of the British empire shifted to the east and the increasingly serious colonial situation in India, forcing the British government to assume the management of the colonies.

With the rapid development of the British industrial revolution, productivity was greatly improved, the British economy was further dependent on overseas markets, and the interests of the British empire were transferred from America to the east. Guided by this policy, Britain emphasized trade warehouses and strategic bases, rather than colonization as in the 17th century. Lord shelburne's 1782 statement that "our trade takes precedence over our rule" actually reflects the principles pursued by the British government during this period. With the development of trade with the east, Britain's trade with China and India plays an increasingly important role in Britain's trade, while India connects China and the big European markets. The center of gravity of the British empire turned to the east, which made Indian colonies play an increasingly important role in the British empire. However, the increasingly serious situation in the Indian colonies since the American revolution forced the British government to adjust its policy towards India.

Finally, the development of the Evangelical Humanitarian movement has also affected the British policy toward the Indian colonies.

In the second half of the 18th century, when Britain was experiencing rapid economic development, evangelicals emerged in the field of religious culture and subsequently humanitarian movements. There has been a great change in people's thinking, a great change in public moral standards, and a great change in people's sense of responsibility towards the empire. The question of what to do with the people of the dependent states was no longer a matter of indifference at home. The Clive era refers to the era when Clive was the head of the east India company before the British reform of the east India company. What can be tolerated has now become intolerable. This change in thinking affected the formulation of imperial policy.

The adjustment act of 1773 enacted by the British parliament was the first step for the British parliament to intervene in Indian affairs. It stipulated that "the board of directors of a company shall thereafter hand over to the ministry of finance all letters sent from India concerning taxation and hand over to the minister of state all letters concerning civil or military affairs". For the first time, the British cabinet has been given control of Indian affairs. It marked the first time that Britain put the east India company under the control of parliament, and changed the colonial affairs of India from a company to a government. The act also provides for the establishment of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, which is intended to replace the corrupt and inefficient court of Calcutta, to enforce the act, prevent east India company employees from abusing the law and provide effective protection for the indigenous people against oppression. It shows that for the first time the British parliament has looked after the interests of the Indian people, at least in the letter of the law.

The act actually established the central government of British India, although its powers were not complete, but since the appointment of the governor and the council of councillors was vested in the king, the British government could influence the governance of the company.

Nevertheless, corruption among east India company employees has not been eliminated. By the end of the 1770s, the reform of the management system of the British colonial Indian government was once again on the agenda of the British parliament and became one of the focal points of political struggle. British politicians want to set up a new mechanism in India that would truly give the state control of the east India company. Robinson, who helped formulate the reform plan, also strongly called for "if a system cannot be identified, established and pursued as soon as possible, I am afraid that we will lose the most valuable country."

The American revolution greatly influenced British policy of domination over India. During the American revolution, France tried to regain its sphere of influence in India. Any corporate government that takes the wrong diplomatic steps risks destroying British interests in India. The first British empire the author refers to the British empire established before the independence of the United States as the first British empire and the British empire established after the independence of the United States as the second British empire. After the collapse, the issue of British rule in India became a top priority for the British government, which must take decisive action to stop the corruption and militarism of the east India company. So after the independence of the United States in 1783, both parties in Britain agreed that there had to be a major change in the system of government in British India. The financial difficulties of the east India company provided an opportunity for Britain to reform the east India company. In 1783, the east India company was forced to borrow money from the British government again, which forced the British government to take action as soon as possible. Burke's assertion that corporate aid and reform must go hand in hand was also broadly accepted by the state. In this case, in December 1783, fox proposed two Indian bills to establish a seven-member committee to control corporate affairs and to try to dissolve the company's board of directors. The fox act was another attempt by the British government to control east India affairs. However, the bill completely abolished the privileges of the east India company and removed the board of directors, which was obviously a bit radical, and was strongly opposed by many people. King George iii even threatened the house of lords: "whoever votes for fox is the king's enemy." The fox bill passed in the lower house, but was rejected by the upper house, and the fox-north coalition collapsed.

The British government exercised control over Indian affairs through the India act of 1784. It was also the second action taken by the British government since the India act of 1773.

The act of India of 1784 provided that the king appointed a parliamentary overseer to oversee and control the civil and military affairs of the east India company. All letters, instructions and orders issued by the board of directors of the company must first be reported to the supervisory bureau. In particular, the bill would punish corporate employees for extortion, receiving gifts and accepting bribes in India. British Indian governors-general, governors-general and councillors are appointed by parliament. Civilian and military officials are still appointed by the company, but all employees must be registered by the board of directors and approved by the lower house of parliament. This means that although the various policies governing India are proposed by the company, the highest decision-making power in military and political matters has been transferred to the British parliament, and the bill strengthens the power of the governor general. From the content of the bill, we can see that the supervision bureau was not an independent administrative subject, it was related to the government at that time, and the supervision bureau did not have the right to appoint officials, so the directors of the company were relatively satisfied with the bill, because they still retained the right to appoint officials and dismiss employees. "Giving the king the power to direct Indian politics, while minimizing the impact of corruption, is the essence of the plan for India and the very soul of this bill," Pitt said.

Peter's "India act" is the second measure taken by the British government to control Indian firms since the enactment of the adjustment act in 1773. It is a major action taken by the British government to save the empire after the disintegration of the old empire. It ended the disaster caused by the trial of the adjustment act, put the company's political action under the guidance of the British government's policies, and stopped the corruption of the east India company staff such as bribery, extortion and so on, which was of great significance. Most people in London and the east India company also supported Peter jr., because the act retained the company's right to appoint officials.

Through a series of reform, the UK has formed a system of dual power rule of Indian affairs, and parliamentary supervision regulation policy, the company's board of directors is responsible for the daily management and appointed officials, as well as the first center is higher than the second, but only through a second center leadership role, it is a common management system of the east India company and the British parliament, from then on, the east India company in India all the behaviors are under the control of the British parliament, to change the old colonial rule under the system of the east India company to do everything. Moreover, the act prohibits the east India company from initiating wars on its own initiative and stipulates that the company's employees should be severely punished for corruption. The purpose of this act is to eradicate tyranny from the system in India. It tried to give the Indian people a "good" government, and the British also raised the flag of caring about the "interests of the Indian people", which was not available under the old colonial rule.

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