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Differences and similarities in public finance between China and the west

2018-10-24 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Differences and similarities in public finance between China and the west,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中西公共财政的异同。公共财政是市场经济的产物,是与市场经济相适应的财政类型或运行模式。同时,它又是保证市场经济得以存在和顺利运行的根本条件。由于中西方的生产关系性质的不同,导致了双方公共财政的性质及有无双元财政的差异。还有生产力水平的不同,导致双方发展型公共财政与发达型公共财政的差异。最后市场经济形成的路径不同,导致双方市场失效范围进而公共财政的范围不同。

public finance,中西公共财政的异同,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Public finance is the product of market economy, and it is the type of finance or operation mode suitable to market economy. At the same time, it is the fundamental condition to guarantee the existence and smooth operation of market economy. In the process of economic system transition, China's fiscal model also turns from planned finance to market finance, namely public finance model. In this process, western public finance based on market economy directly constitutes the reference object of China's fiscal model reform. Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to accurately understand the similarities and differences between Chinese and western public finance.

The public finance in China and the west is based on or basically built on the modern economy. It is the distribution activity or economic activity of the state or government providing public services to the market. Therefore, they have the same or similar features and connotations.

In the market economy, the basic role of market allocation of resources must be given full play to reach the optimal state of pareto. However, in some areas and occasions with the nature of common consumption, the so-called market failure problem arises, which is mainly manifested as the existence of public products, spillovers, natural monopoly, risks and uncertainties, as well as the unfair social distribution and the imbalance of macroeconomic aggregate. In this case, the government is generally required to provide public services to the market through the revenue and expenditure of the public finance, thus directly making up for the market failure.

Equivalence exchange is the basic principle that market activities must follow, which determines that government services to the market must be "treated equally" rather than "treated differently". The unity of the market determines the process in which the government ACTS on certain or certain market actors, that is, the process that affects all market actors. Looked at in reality, budgetary revenues and expenditures subject to various market activities can be "different", but this is only to arrange an approach for the public service of the government, in order to guarantee the normal operation of the market and the capital, therefore, fundamentally, is still the "same", it has essential difference with "discrimination". The principle of "differential treatment" negates the equivalence exchange criterion and then the market economy, which is incompatible with the market economy.

Profitability is the direct motivation for people to participate in market activities. One of the fundamental reasons for market failure is that there is no guarantee of normal market profitability. As the main body of public finance, the government carries out various activities to compensate the market failure as the owner of the regime and the social manager. If the government, as the main body of public finance, takes profit as its purpose, the result must be the politicization of economic activities, which leads to the collapse of the entire market economy system.

To some extent, the market economy is a legal economy. As a direct activity of the government, finance must obviously be bound and regulated by law and act according to law in the market economy, so as to be legal. The legalization of finance means that the public may decide, restrain, regulate and supervise the government's financial behavior fundamentally through the legal authority of government budget.

There are many factors that lead to the difference between Chinese and western public finance, including political and cultural factors, productivity and production relations. Here mainly from the perspective of productivity and relations of production to explain the similarities and differences of public finance between the two sides.

The differences in the nature of production relations lead to the differences in the nature of public finance and non-dual finance between the two parties. The different nature of the relations of production, mainly the different nature of the ownership of the means of production, leads to the difference between the public finance of China and the private finance of the west. The western public finance has dual character: the market economy system decides it is public finance, thus has the public character; The private ownership of the means of production decides that it is capitalist finance and thus exploitative. The combination of the two shows that under the condition of capitalist market economy, public finance is the unification of publicity and exploitation. Similarly, China's public finance also has a dual nature: the public ownership of the means of production determines that it is socialist finance, and it must serve the maintenance and appreciation of state capital belonging to all the people, so as to be value-added. In this way, under the condition of socialist market economy, public finance is the same of publicity and value-added.

Further, under the condition of market economy, the different nature of ownership of production means also directly leads to the dual fiscal operation mode in China, namely public finance and state capital finance, while the western fiscal operation mode is only a single public finance mode. This is because, public ownership economy is the leading economic component of the market economy that our country is about to establish, profitability is the basic nature of our country's state-owned economy, which constitutes a fundamental difference between China and western countries under the same market economy. Political government in non-market field, whose revenue and expenditure activities constitute public finance, which is the consistency between Chinese and western finance; Economic government in the market field, whose revenue and expenditure activities constitute the state capital finance, which is the difference between Chinese finance and western finance. The combination of the two determines the dual structure of China's fiscal model and the unit structure of the western fiscal model.

Different levels of productivity lead to the difference between developed and developed public finance. The development level of China's productivity is generally behind that of western developed countries, which determines that the public finance to be established in China has many characteristics and contents different from those of western developed countries, and forms the difference between China's developmental public finance and western developed public finance. In terms of the structure of tax revenue, China will be dominated by turnover tax for a long time, while in the west it is mainly dominated by income tax. According to Richard musgrave and rostow "developmental" public spending growth model analysis, our country is in the early stages of economic development and public investment in the whole national economy high proportion of total investment, it is for social communication, transportation, education, health, such as infrastructure and public services, to promote economic take-off. However, most of the economies in western countries have entered the mature stage, and the main goal of public expenditure is to provide education, health, welfare and other services instead of social infrastructure. At this time, expenditure on social security and income redistribution takes a large proportion.

In the economic history, the market economy was the product of negating the feudal city-state economy of Western Europe. The transition from natural economy to market economy has a flavor of "natural transformation", which enables the market economy system of western countries to gradually solve the relationship between government and market during the hundreds of years of development. And the market economy of our country is the product that negates planned economy, it is "artificial" build. This is a construction path totally different from the western way, which determines the particularity of China's market failure: generally speaking, market failure is relative to market efficiency and can only be formed naturally. However, China's market failure includes not only "natural" market failure, but also "artificial" market failure caused by abnormal government intervention. The market failure in China is not only reflected in the common contents of market failure in countries with market economic system such as public products and spillovers, but also in the unsound market development and the particularity of market failure caused by the artificial nature of market economy. In the coming 21st century, what we are going to establish is no longer a laissez-faire market system, but a market economy under the macro-control of the state. It is impossible for the government to let the problems of unfair social distribution and macroeconomic imbalances remain unchecked.

It is because of the human nature, primary nature and diversity of market failure that China's public finance, which is responsible for making up for market failure, presents different characteristics from western public finance, which determines the difficulty of making up for market failure. China's public finance should not only make up for the "natural" market failure, but also the "artificial" market failure.

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