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美国作业代写:International Whaling Commission

2017-11-14 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- International Whaling Commission,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了国际捕鲸委员会。国际捕鲸委员会成立于1948年,是世界最古老的国际组织之一,主要负责监督评估世界各国捕鲸鱼之数量及种类,是否符合公约之有关规定。近几年,国际捕鲸委员会直接呼吁公众,他们主张停止鲸鱼的捕杀,拯救鲸鱼成为一个国家制止环境破坏的政治能力的考验。

International Whaling Commission,国际捕鲸委员会,essay代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

Currently, the global environmental governance highly relies on the information, policies and actions about environmental issues by states, international organisations and non-state actors (NSAs) (Haas, 1990). Many theorists on globalization and global governance such as Keohane, Strange, and Nye observe arising role of non-state actors in the global area, especially on the environmental issues. Non-state actors (NSAs) can be described as the actors that operate at the global level, which are not the representatives of states (Higgott, Underhill, & Bieler, 2000). It includes international organisations, non-governmental organisations, business sectors, epistemic communities and other categories (Arts, 2005). Since the world has become ecologically interdependent, environmental issues such as biodiversity, fishing and pollution are becoming the global issues, thus, increasing number of non-state actors take actions on the environmental issues. This essay will discuss whether the non-state actors are efficient and effective on environmental issues, in terms of transparency and openness, contribution and appropriateness of non-state actors. In the core part of this essay, first, international organisations, NGOs and business sectors will be evaluated as efficient and effective on the issues of whaling, pollution and others. Then, NGOs and international organisations will be assessed as inefficient and ineffective on the external and internal aspects.

The International Whaling Commission (IWC), one of the oldest international organisations, founded in 1948. It works in the field of international resource and environmental management. Since the mid-1960s, the IWC has taken great efforts and succeeded in forming a conservation-oriented outlook and a stronger and scientific discourse within the IWC, which make it efficient and effective in this area (Mitchell, 1998). Under the direction of the IWC, an increasingly intense environmental movement lobbied actively. Additionally, scientists within the IWC appealed directly to the public, they advocated stopping the depletion of whales. According to Holt (1985), saving the whale becomes the test of one nation’s political ability to stop the environmental destruction. With tremendous support among the public, the whale became a major symbol of the environmental movement, the public calls for a moratorium of commercial whaling was successful, which was adopted at the Stockholm conference in 1972(Kobayashi, 2006). The reason why this environmental campaign was so successful led by the IWC can be illustrated in two points. First, its conservation-oriented approach, which shows the IWC was on the right course. It is easier and accessible to encourage people to involve in with a slogan like ‘save the whale’ than publish scientific statements on whale issue. For example, this environmental movement influenced the US most, it would be safe to confirm that the anti-whaling norm has internalised in the US in 1978 (Baily, 2008). Second, the IWC’s effectively use of environmental movement in its projects. The IWC made NGO participation and lobbying increased from a handful size in 1972 to 57 in 1982 in the area of whaling(Guevara, 2008). Moreover, the IWC made itself as an open organisation to encourage green movement. According to Andresen (1998), the startling numbers of environmental groups were carried out under the advocacy of the IWC.

In sum, norms, knowledge, and institutional design all shed light on the efficient and effective operation of the IWC. When knowledge of scientists and norms of environmental movement goes together, the IWC can be influential. The institutional design of the IWC also explains the influence of the IWC. As far as transparency and openness are concerned, it is obvious that the IWC shared its information and experts’ knowledge with the public to make it popular in the environmental movement. Therefore, the IWC attracted more NGOs to advocate the idea of stop whaling, which embody itself as an open organisation in this area. The second criterion to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the IWC is its contribution. It successfully calls for the moratorium on commercial whaling and made it adopted at the global conference. It led other actors to pay attention to the whaling issue and made this issue a concern at the global level. The last criterion is appropriateness. In the initial times, whaling nations and whaling industries only looked to the short-term profit, which resulted in the shortage of whale stock. Then the IWC appeared as the leadership to fight against this environmental issue, which was indeed the right time.

Another non-state actor with great influence on environmental politics is the NGO. The Black Sea can be considered as one of the most polluted water areas in the world. Neighbourhood countries’ polluted runoff and upstream dams resulted in the erosion of coastal; marine-based pollution and degradation of the wetlands around the Black Sea reduce the water quality; moreover, man-made disasters such as the Chernobyl explosion, even compounded the pollution worse. Thus, the ecosystem of the Black Sea has to be reformed. The Black Sea NGO Forum was established to raise public awareness and promote public participation on the Black Sea environmental issue; to develop communication mechanisms among nationally and internationally and to encourage cooperation among different roles in the world(Forum, 2008). The Black Sea NGOs not only strengthened the environmental coordination but also engaged in creating wetland conservation programmes in order to improve the ecological environment in the Black Sea. What the forum has achieved is: it supported and encouraged other international organisations such as Environmental Know How Fund to increase capability in building public participation on Black Sea environmental issues. The Black Sea NGO Forum has organized Several public awareness projects on Black Sea issues by in Tblisi in 1997 (UNDP, 1998). Moreover, the First International Black Sea Action Day which was proposed by the Black Sea NGO Forum was held in 1995, and resulted in the signing of the Black Sea Strategic Action Plan (UNDP, 1997).

To assess whether the NGO forum is efficient and effective. First, its transparency and openness. Although it is not as open as the IWC, which was mentioned before, the NGO forum was committed to develop the public power through public awareness projects. The reason of it is because the Black Sea environmental issue is not an easy task, this issue needs the contribution of both the public and the government, and therefore, the NGO forum mainly used the public power to pressure the government to take remedial actions. In addition, the NGO forum also worked in the area of environmental education programme and communication and information exchange(UNDP, 1995). Second, the contribution. The NGO forum supports both implementations of local and national activities and programmes in the Black Sea areas, which related to the environmental development. Moreover, the NGO forum effectively communicates with other non-state actors to evaluate and report the progress of protecting the Black Sea. As far as appropriateness is concerned, the environmental situation in the Black Sea is quite urgent, which caused various social and economic costs, such as fisheries lost and health problems(Kideys, 2002). Thus, it is the right time for the NGOs to establish a group to solve the environmental issue in the Black Sea area. Furthermore, the NGO forum’s approach towards this issue is appropriate. The members of the forum know that the public power is not enough to solve the environmental problem in the Black Sea, therefore, they tried to gather the power of the states, no matter on the monetary level or the technical level, which shows that NGOs get more involved in the international environmental issues and international fora (Gerlak & Parisi, 1996).

Last but not least, the business sector, which is relatively autonomous from the government’s control compared to other non-state actors. It is estimated that approximately 70 percent of the trade in the world is undercontrolled by nearly 500 transnational corporations (Korten, 2001). It is also evident that transnational corporations bring not only commodities but also advanced technologies to the developing countries, which boost the development of local levels. However, the general idea about the transnational corporations is they regard the developing countries as “pollution havens”, because of the relatively low standards environment(Chatterjee & Finger, 1994). From another perspective, both multinational corporations and transnational corporations hold high the flag of “green”, such as green industry and eco-efficiency, in order to maintain their comparative advantages in the global scale(Hanakova, 2005). For example, The World Business Council for Sustainable Development, this was established by nearly 120 multinational corporations to develop environmentally trade and industry. These business actors lobbies organisations such as the International Organisation for Standardisation and the World Trade Organisation to develop environmental standards for the trade, and tries to set codes and guidelines for environmental practices (Finger & James, 1996). Thus, the business sector is included in dealing with the today’s environmental issues.

To assess the role of business sector works on the environmental issues. As far as transparency and openness are concerned, the business sector might not so open compared with NGOs, their projects are mainly arranged within business corporations, which do not involve the public advocacy and movement. The approach they used is trying to set the global environmental standards within their trade and industry practices, thus, they just include the actors within the business sector(Doris & Mazmanian, 1998). Contribution, with the efforts paid by the business sector, the prospect of sustainable development in the developing countries can be expected. Their practice can also be an example in the future management of environmental issues. Considering the criterion of appropriateness, without the Initiatives of the business sector to take actions in the environmental protection in the industry and trade, there will be disastrous results from the bad relationship between industry and environment.

However, the effectiveness and efficiency of programmes and projects undertaken by these non-state actors is not only determined by their own, but also influenced by the operational environment. Both of them resulted in the inefficient and ineffective performance of non-state actors work on the environmental issues. From the external perspective, non-state actors’ lack of autonomy may lead to inefficient and ineffective work on the environmental issues. It is undeniable that NGO’s dependency on funding perceives as big threats to the autonomy and accountability of NGOs to the public(Mitlin, Hickey, & Bebbington, 2006). For example, in Kenya, about 10 per cent of the NGO’s fund was through direct funding, and most of these Southern NGOs have a close relationship with their Northern counterparts. The reality is the donor’s influence is actually an important factor rather than other stakeholders, which resulted in unexpected consequences.

Moreover, through government interference, non-state actors’ performance can also be inefficient and ineffective. Non-state actors and the government are supposed to be good partners when dealing with the environmental issues, however, some cases of demonstrations can be violently resisted by the government(Munyuan & Agoya, 1999). Once the non-state actors are limited to participate in the democratic space and lack of involvement in the governance of social services or other activities, they would act inefficiently and ineffectively in the environmental issues in terms of their influences (Clayton, 1998).There are also barriers to access relative environmental information through bureaucratic coordination(Adebowale, 2004). Lack of effective cooperation between non-state actors and governmental agencies result in poor performance of non-state actors, because they have to seek information from various sources in order to ensure their information has both quantity and quality. Thus, non-state actors can be inefficient and ineffective if they do not have enough capability to collect resources about the environment through various channels.

Sometimes, non-state actors cannot work efficiently and effectively on the environmental issues because of themselves. Many of them are small, new and have little experience, which lead to no ability to guarantee their future(Patricia, 2000). This shows the limitation of non-state actors when they deal with environmental issues. They have great difficulties in achieving replicability and sustainability in the environmental programmes(Ulleberg, 2009). For example, the IWC has lost some influences in its area. The phenomenon is an increasing number of pro-whaling states and pro-whaling NGOs gain a strong influx of influence. This is because there is less unity and sustainability within the IWC. The IWC seems tried to continue the effort and monitor, it is discouraged by some failed programme and it failed to update the information about whaling. Thus, most of non-state actors’ concerns are basically on a short-term level, their irregular and discontinuous work on the environmental issues resulted in inefficiency and ineffectiveness(Rautiala & Bridgeman, 2007).

To conclude, non-state actors such as NGOs and international organisations show their substantive roles in the environmental issues. However, their roles may be effective and efficient or inefficient and ineffective. Two cases are mainly assessed in this essay, they are the IWC, the Black Sea NGO Forum and business sector, in terms of its transparency and openness, contribution and appropriateness. Then, the inefficient and ineffective roles of non-state actors in the environmental issues have been illustrated with external and internal reasons. The growth of non-state actors in the environmental sectors poses a total different method of dealing with these issues compared to traditional roles(Luterbacher & Spinz, 2001). Although we do not see a dramatic shift from government to governance in dealing with environmental issues, the non-state actors’development forms a ‘multi-rule’ system in the environmental arena did contribute to the environmental issues to some extent.

Reference文献

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Andresen, S. (1998). The Making and Implementation of Whaling Policies: Does Participation Makes a Difference? In D. G. Victor, K. Raustiala & E. B. Skolnikoff (Eds.), The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments (pp. 439-440). Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Arts, B. (2005). Non-state actors in global environmental governance: New arrangements beyond the states. Global Governance.

Baily, J. L. (2008). Arrested development: the fight to end commercial whaling as a case of failed norm change. European Journal of International Relations, 14(2), 289-318.

Chatterjee, P., & Finger, M. (1994). The earth brokers : power, politics and world development. London ; New York: Routledge.

Clayton, A. (1998). NGOs and decentralised government in Africa: INTRAC.

Doris, F., & Mazmanian, D. (1998). The Greening of Industry: Needs of the Field. Business Strategy and the Environment, 7, 193-203.

Finger, M., & James, K. (1996). Multinationals Organizing to Save the Global Environment. San Diego: the 37th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association.

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Gerlak, A. K., & Parisi, L. L. (1996). Managing International Waters: A Look at the Global Environmental Facility. San Diego, CA: the 37th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association.

Guevara, G. Y. (2008). Assessing the Effectiveness of Transnational Activism: An Analysis of the Anti-Whaling and Anti-Sealing Campaigns: University of South California.

Haas, P. M. (1990). Saving the Mediterranean : the politics of international environmental cooperation. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hanakova, L. (2005). Accountability of Transnational Corporations under International Standards. LLM Theses and Essays, 17.

Higgott, R. A., Underhill, G. R. D., & Bieler, A. (2000). Non-state actors and authority in the global system [electronic resource]. London ; New York: Routledge.

Holt, S. (1985). Whale mining, whale saving. Marine Policy, 9(3), 192-214.

Kideys, A. E. (2002). Fall and Rise of the Black Sea Ecosystem. Science, 297(5586), 1482-1484.

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