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美国作业代写:The ecotourism

2017-11-11 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The ecotourism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了生态旅游。生态旅游是以有特色的生态环境为主要景观的旅游,以可持续发展为理念,保护生态环境为前提,统筹人与自然和谐发展,并依托良好的自然生态环境和独特的人文生态系统,采取生态友好方式,开展的生态体验,生态教育,生态认知并获得心身愉悦的旅游方式。

ecotourism,生态旅游,essay代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

Ecotourism involves responsible traveling to fragile, pristine and mostly protected areas. This takes place for different purposes, from educating the traveler, fostering respect for different cultures to directly benefiting the economic and political empowerment of local communities (Garana, 2008). Ideally, ecotourism incorporates the following criteria; promote biological and cultural diversity, touring unspoiled natural habitats, and the main attractions being local culture, flora and fauna. In short, ecotourism operations are defined by their commitment to the environment, education, nature and culture. The main objectives of ecotourism are providing nature-based, environmental education experiences for visitors and managing this in a sustainable manner (Badan & Bhatt, 2005).

Education enables students to understand the interconnectedness of various aspects of the global environment. Ecotourism embraces cooperative education which is a structured educational strategy that integrates class work with learning through productive fieldwork experiences that for practical applications to be realized. The relationship between ecotourism and education is majorly concerned with ensuring that agencies deliver effective interpretations of cultural, environmental and resource management values (Morgan, 1999). This type of education involves explanation, stimulation, provocation, revelation and understanding in an interesting and enjoyable fashion. The main challenge lies in the interpretation and options of relying on signage and brochures so as to change people’s attitudes and actions towards their environment are considered as solutions to this challenge.

Ecotourism offers a great opportunity for educational as well as personal growth as values of appreciation and attitude changes are instilled in participants which would lead to significant involvement in environmental and social issues in the future. Essentially, the dimension of ecotourism as an educational experience creates a new window for viewing the whole world and one’s self. It offers an opportunity to show the growth and development of various learning experiences while at the same time exploring another country or culture and going beyond one’s preconceived limitations (Vitti, 2007, p. 60).

Nature-based ecotourism focuses on personally experiencing natural areas in ways that result in understanding and appreciation .It integrates opportunities to understand natural areas into each and every experience. Furthermore, it targets to proactively contribute to the conservation of natural areas and provides constructive contributions to local communities. It is distinguished from other tourism forms due to its natural area setting (Ravens, 1996). Nature based tourism includes a range of tourism experiences that entail adventure tourism, cultural and rural tourism. In addition, activities such as rafting and scuba diving are forms of nature based ecotourism.

On the other hand, sustainable ecotourism aims to address on the needs of visited environments to sustain them. The main focal points include sustaining the natural environment itself and contributing to help local communities understand the importance and value of their adjacent environment (Briffa & Lee, 2004). Sustainability is drawn from the concept of sustainable development which is development that focuses on meeting the needs of he present generation without hindering the ability of the future generations from meeting their own needs. The basic criteria for sustainable ecotourism include; the sustainable use of ecological resources, increased environmental and cultural awareness, conservation ethos, support of local economies through increased revenue from visitors and the use of local supplies and services.

It is important to note that for ecotourism to be realized the above components need to be integrated on a wholesome package. Eco tourism entails the incorporation of nature as the main laboratory for informal learning through which attitudes and values on conservation are appreciated and instilled. For these natural resources to be available for the unforeseeable future, sustainability has to come into play.

Several differences between ecotourism and other forms of tourism can be outlined. To start with, the key difference existing is that ecotourism involves learning about the environment whereas other forms of tourism such as adventure tourism only focus on personal accomplishments of successfully meeting the challenge of the natural environment (Morgan, 1999).

Generally, as envisioned by Ravens (1996), the tourism industry focuses on market demand by attempting to foster, maintain and expand the market world which mostly draws it away from focusing on maintaining the product or experience. The addition of facilities and infrastructures to cater for the demand result in the destruction of pristine environment and the indigenous experience which ecotourism attempts to reverse by reducing these impacts of tourism.

Ecotourism maintains a supply oriented management perspective with primary considerations being the nature and resilience of the resource, cultural or local community preferences and interpretive conservation programs (Badan & Bhatt, 2005). Tourism on the other hand, focuses on individual experiences that may overlook the relevance of in-depth learning of the natural environment and indigenous knowledge essential for changing people’s attitudes and perceptions.

Nature based tourism is seen as a subcomponent of alternative tourism and ecotourism is highlighted as being part of both alternative and natural based tourism. This is because nature plays a big role in both. In addition, the interaction between natural environment and adventure travel are components of adventure tourism. This points to adventure travel with certain risky elements which when lowered become logical extensions of ecotourism (Dimitrios, 1998, p.517).

Time, a very fundamental commodity would also be used to differentiate other forms of tourism from eco tourism. The time taken to interact with nature and local communities in ecotourism is substantial due to the time taken to appreciate what the environment provides.

Funds accruing from tourism activities are not absolutely used to improve the livelihoods of local populations, they may not trickle down to these communities when allocated on a national scale (Fridell, 2003). Instead they form a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product of most economies. On the other hand, funds collected from ecotourism institutions are diverted to activities aimed at improving the lives of local communities. This is because these populations play a vital role in ensuring the sustainability of the environment through proper management and protection to curb overexploitation.

The subsequent impact of human activities on the environment is yet another difference between ecotourism and other forms of tourism. The fact that ecotourism addresses the values and perceptions of individuals which impact to a greater extent the appreciation of the environment thereby reducing the magnitudes of exploitation of these resources is a prime definition of ecotourism different from tourism in general (Thomas, 2004). Behaviors such as the proper disposal of waste in campsites or tourist environs are emphasized in ecotourism as compared to other forms of tourism which overlook the importance of such actions.

Ecotourism emphasizes on interaction based on the proximity to the natural habitat, for example, watching dolphins in their natural habitat, the ocean, while mainstream tourism does not emphasize on the natural environment such as watching dolphins in an aquarium (Anderson & Beasley, 2002).

The levels of interactions described by Fridell (2003) are different in the two concepts. Ecotourism based activities involve a close interaction with the environment with actions such as species identity and indigenous knowledge on certain phenomena. The level of interaction related with tourism on the other hand is perceived to be shallow as little is learnt from the environment. In some areas, excursions are conducted using vehicles making it difficult for tourists to interact closely with the environment.

Despite the aforementioned differences, similarities also exist between ecotourism and other forms of tourism like sustainable tourism, adventure tourism amongst others. First of all, both recognize the environment as the main functional unit. Activities developed from both are environmentally related as it forms the main feature. Scuba diving, nature viewing, participating in eco-challenge activities are just but a few of the activities environmentally based (Briffa & Lee, 2004).

Secondly, as expressed by Anderson & Beasley, the human being is the main driver of both concepts. These concepts are developed and actualized by humans who also contribute to their continuous application. This is due to the fact that the human person recognizes the adjacent environment around him as it is important for his survival (69). The environment is the producer of goods and services for human consumption, and equally acts as an assimilator of waste produced from human activities that process final products for his use. Without it, humans cannot survive hence the essence to conserve and protect it.

The end result of both concepts is to create avenues of exposure to opportunities of the environment and its subsequent conservation. The environment offers more than just resources. It creates an aesthetic feeling as well as favorable atmospheres for relaxation both mentally and physically. Such opportunities are made available through ecotourism and tourism (Morgan, 1999)

Both venture in to pristine environments that are either protected by government policies or local populations. Pristine environments are less exploited or not ventured into at all and offer a great variety of species and ecosystems.

Both tourism and ecotourism aim towards sustainable development. There is usually a conflict between development and environmental conservation with both extremes bringing about inadequacies in adaptation owing to the current global situations of negative environmental impacts and effects of the global village. Ecotourism therefore attempts to meet the needs of the local people while tourism focuses on a much bigger population putting the country’s citizens in perspective (Morgan, 1999).

An eco- tour refers to a sightseeing excursion in physical nature. An ecotourist then refers to a tourist who joins an ecotour. With the above definition, it is worth noting that eco-tourists may fail to understand the difference between ecotourism and mainstream tourism (Dimitrios, 2008). This occurs in circumstances where they fail to understand the roles expected of them to distinguish them from other tourists. In addition, the sites chosen for excursion purposes may determine them as tourists. An eco-tourist who accesses a tourist site such as an aquarium or mausoleum located away from its original site would fail to understand the difference between him and a tourist.

In cases where tourists are given an opportunity to learn from the available environment with the help of tour guides or game rangers, they are awarded the same opportunity of acquiring knowledge just as those seeking such knowledge from ecotourism areas availed to them by local community members hence the difference between them is narrowed (Badan & Bhatt, 2005).

A case study on the educational experience in ecotourism in Peru, The Condor Lodge Conservatory is well discussed below.

The conservatory is located in Apurimac Canyon and is settled in a natural environment, with close proximity to the Antilla Community and surrounded by an eco-farm. Most families share sleeping space with the Kuyi, a type of guinea pigs. The area is also surrounded by gold mines and has been at the forefront of ecotourism efforts in the region. It has also created string networks with local tourist agencies, international tourists and planning small group visits that are aimed at creating a harmonious relationship with the environment. It is further characterized by undisturbed wilderness, wildlife diversity, hospitable people and a spectacular view of the Andean Condor which create an exceptional educational experience (Garana, 2008).

A case study of the Campi ya Kanzi, an ecotourism site in Kenya.

This site is stretched over 400 miles of African wilderness, within the Kuku Group Ranch of Southern Kenya. The area is owned by Maasai herdsmen and extends through to Mt. Kilimanjaro (Vitti, 2007, p. 55). This environment is well endowed with wildlife diversity of fauna and flora. The ranch also contains pools, a lake and springs. The lodge in the area has minimal impact on the environment as buildings are constructed from local material such as lava rocks, thatch and lumber obtained from a reforestation program. The foundations of the lodge was based on protecting wildlife, the wilderness and Maasai culture as well as obtain financial support for maintaining a place where wildlife can flourish (Vitti, 2007, pp. 56-60).

To sum up, Campi ya Kanzi is an ecotourism lodge, built, owned and run by the local community for the benefit of the environment and local people.

In conclusion, Ecotourism is an aspect that incorporates tourism but is specific in nature. There are limitless similarities that exist between ecotourism and tourism such as sustainability, nature being at the forefront in both and an offer to interact with the pristine natural environment. There are also significant differences that exist between them from the educational perspective, the natural environment to the levels of interactions. However, the impact of both tourism and ecotourism on the environment as well the changes in people’s attitudes is worth noting. The functional responsibility of both eco-tourists, soft and hard, and tourist plays a fundamental role in achieving the ultimate goals of both concepts.

References

Anderson, C., & Beasley, J. (2002). Protecting Pristine Environs. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Badan, B.S., & Bhatt, H. (2005). Ecotourism. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Briffa, M., & Lee, G. (2004). Conventional Links to Sustainable Development. New York: Nerd Press.

Dimitrios, D. (1998). The Links Between Sustainable Tourism and Ecotourism: a definitional and operational perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 25, 515-518.

Fridell, R. (2003). The Human Approach Towards Environmental Conservation: a handbook. UK: Longman.

Garana, D. (2008). Ecotourism in South America. India: Commonwealth Publishers

Morgan, R. (1999). Comparisons between Ecotourism and Tourism.USA: Sage.

Thomas, I. (2004). Defining Tourism: concepts and principles. USA: Rosen Publishing Group Inc.

Ravens, D.N. (1996). The Natural and Human Environment Combined. New York: Children’s Press.

Vitti, M. (2007). Ecotourism in Kenya: Campi ya Kanzi. Journal on Economic Views, 2, 54-63.

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