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The International Political Game of Overfishing Bluefin Tun

2015-10-16 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面请看51Due论文代写网精选essay代写范文“ The International Political Game of Overfishing Bluefin Tun” 由于金枪鱼的需求增加,金枪鱼正变得越来越少濒临灭绝。金枪鱼,作为濒危物种造成的过度捕捞,因此成为国际热点问题甚至是一个国际政治游戏。环境非政府组织的代表,作者试图讨论过度捕捞金枪鱼的国际政治游戏。本文主要分为两个部分:一是介绍金枪鱼渔业的背景,而另一个是讨论金枪鱼渔业的国际比赛。


Introduction

With the increasing demand of tuna, species of tuna is becoming fewer and fewer and has reached the line of extinction. The tuna, as an endangered species resulted from the overfishing, thus becomes a hot international topic even an international political game on whether it should be restricted. This author, as a representative of environment NGO, tries to discuss the the international political game of overfishing tuna. The paper is mainly divided into two parts: one is to introduce the background of the fishery of tuna, while the other is to discuss the international game of the fishing of tuna.


Background
According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), it is proved that Bluefin tuna is facing a serious situation of extinction because of the overfishing for years. Species of Bluefin tuna, like Thunus Maccoyii (Southern Bluefin Tuna), is considered as an endangered animal, ranking from “endangered” up to “critically endangered”, even one level higher than another endangered animal Panda (Pintassilgo, 2001). Meanwhile, according to the International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-Like Species in the North Pacific Ocean (ISC), the quantity of Pacific Bluefin tuna has declined by 96.4 per cent since fishing began more than 200 years ago (Pintassilgo, 2001). One of the main reason resulting in such tragedy is the increasing demand of Japanese and worldwide sushi market. It is the profit that drives people to fish the tuna all the time even if tuna becomes fewer and fewer.
Monaco once put forward a suggestion that Bluefin tuna should be recorded into the appendix of endangered species, which would restrict the fishing of tuna if receiving the approval. The proposal, however, was rejected in the end via the voting. With the fewer and fewer tuna, the efforts will never stop even if the Monaco act did not get approval. Therefore, I, as the representative of environmental nongovernment organization, stick to the proposal that it should be restrict the fishing of tuna, the precious species, even to achieve zero fishing theoretically.
The Analysis of International Game of Overfishing Bluefin Tuna

No Pass for the Act of Banning fishing


The Atlantic and Mediterranean Bluefin tuna is often used to made sushi and the price is very high, which leads to the massive demand of tuna and thus the overfishing of tuna. Especially, the Bluefin tuna that has fecundity decreases to a large extent in recent years, directly giving rise to the increasing price of the Bluefin tuna and growing scales of fishing. In March 2010, Monaco put forward an act to the members of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITEC) that the Atlantic and Mediterranean Bluefin tuna should be recorded into the appendix of endangered species, saying that today’s fishing is different from the past, because the industrial fishing leads to the extreme reduce of the tuna and serious decline of its recover and the ecological system will break down.
However, the proposal was voted down, especially Japan opposed the most. Japan exports 80% of Bluefin tuna from Atlantic and Mediterranean areas. If the act was approved, Bluefin tuna could not be trade internationally, which was considered for Japanese to be too serious. Japanese held the view that Bluefin tuna should be protected in the area of the International Atlantic Tuna Commission, founding in 1969 to maintain the largest extent of fishing under the condition of the same sum of the Atlantic tuna and similar tuna. Luckily, the commission decides that the quota of fishing of Bluefin tuna is reduced from 22 thousand tons to 13.5 thousand tons and promised likewise it will spare efforts to recover the numbers of the species of tuna, and, if necessary, it will ban fishing in some areas.

A little Relaxation for Japanese


According to the CITEC, the contracting party can propose the act of banning fishing once again, while Monaco declared not to put forward the act any more. Japanese representative asserted that the ban would result in the rise of price of Bluefin tuna, but it avoided the rise of price in the end. As a large demand country of Bluefin tuna, it is indeed a nice thing that the act was rejected. However, overfishing is a problem in the end, and International Atlantic Tuna Commission will carry out a more serious policy later (Li, 1998). As for the Japanese, the similar act of ban is still possible to appear, and is just put off, I think. Is it a little relaxation for Japanese that the proposal got rejection? Maybe time will tell us.


The Disappointment of Environmental Nongovernment Organization

I, as the representative of environmental nongovernment organization, felt very disappointed about this rejection, and I think this must be the same as other supporters. It could be expressed no more than as “hit heavily”. Obviously, the great environmental policy was given up to the profits, because we all know that the price of Bluefin tuna is very high. I think this is not a nice day for the species protection, and the result could show fully that many countries still made no good preparation for the way of protecting endangered species. Meanwhile, such a result revealed that the protection of Bluefin tuna still meets a lot of difficulties and has not strong feasibility to carry out the programs. International Atlantic Tuna Commission still has no valid ways to fulfill the responsibility of protecting the sustainable fishery (Tudela, 2005). However, I think it is sunny in the future and the protection of the environmental policy will get people’s supports in the end.


Conclusion
With the increasing demand of Bluefin tuna, the sounds of protecting Bluefin tuna will travel faster and wider and get more supports. I, the representative of environmental NGO, believe that the Bluefin tuna will get recovery in the soon future, with the increasing supports and awareness of environmental protection. As is known to us, through our efforts, Japanese government has decided to decline the fishing of Bluefin tuna under the three years old, whose degree of decline reaches to 15%.
 

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