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Background to Manchester's successful transformation

2020-07-08 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 写作技巧

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 --Background to Manchester's successful transformation ,文章讲述作为英国仅次于伦敦的传统工业城市,曼彻斯特经历了巨大的变革。曼彻斯特的转型对工业经济和社会空间都具有深远的意义。自1980年代以来,在政策和运营措施的有效支持下,曼彻斯特已从传统的制造业城市转变为依靠服务经济的后工业城市,并获得了空间,经济和社会方面的多重利益。

 

Background to Manchester's successful transformation

As Britain's traditional industrial city second to London, Manchester has experienced a tremendous transformation. The transformation of Manchester is profound both in industrial economy and social space. Since 1980s, by effective support from the policy and operational measures, Manchester has been transformed from a traditional manufacturing city to a post-industrial city relying on the service economy, which has obtained the multiple benefits of space, economic and social aspects.

This essay contains four parts. The first part introduces the background of Manchester transformation. The second part illustrates the transformation examples and their influence in 1980s, 1990s and the 21st century. The third part analyzes the influence of policies and governance on Manchester transformation. The fourth part is the conclusion of the essay.

1. Background Introduction

Manchester is an international city located in northwest England. Manchester generally refers to Greater Manchester, composed by Manchester City, Salford and Trafford. With a total population of about 268 million, Greater Manchester is Britain's third largest metropolitan area following London and Birmingham. (Wikipedia, 2015)

As one traditional industrial city and the origins of the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom, Manchester has two crucial moments in the history of urban development. The first key moment is from 1950s to 1960s. During this period, Manchester’s cotton textile industry was exceeded by other cities in the United Kingdom. Its industry is geared to deep processing of cotton products and manufacturing industry changes of cotton textile machinery, which was a structural transformation in the process of industrialization in Manchester. The second key moment occurred in the late 1970s following World War II. Both cotton, textile industry and the shipping industry plunged into a severe recession. The traditional industry experienced the gradual decline. Urban economy was trapped into recession. The appearance of the city was crumbling. The second moment is crucial in the transformation of Manchester. At that time, the city mainly faced four problems.

First and foremost, the textile industry and the shipping industry experienced severe decline. Many enterprises in the processing and trade industry had been closed down and relocated. The city’s industrial areas and the waterfront areas began to fall into decline.

Secondly, living population decreased. Economic turmoil led to a increasing drop of the number of the city jobs. A large number of populations relocated to other areas. Inner-city areas became the agglomeration of the low-income class. In the meantime, the British government implemented the “slums clearing plan", which further strengthened the trend of population relocation.

Thirdly, a large number of lands were abandoned. Economic downturn led to an increasing number of abandoned lands and vacant buildings in Manchester. In the late 70'sand early80's, one third of the industrial lands in Trafford Park had been in idle state.

Fourthly, the real estate market was stagnant. Decrease of inner-city population, rapid development of suburban high income residential areas and the rising economy of London area had imposed great pressure on Manchester development in the industries like retail and office market. The dilapidated space and harsh environment affected attractions of the surrounding. Housing was backlogged by a large number and the real estate market stalled. (Healey, 1992)

2. Transformation Examples and Influence

Due to the harsh situation, it was urgent for the government to take actions to govern the city. In the following thirty years, a lot of changes have been taken in Manchester.

2.1 Transformation in 1980

2.1.1 Content of Transformation

During this period, the content of transformation can be reflected in three dimensions.

In the first place, the target of the transformation of the central area is to reuse the city central area about 9.7 hectares of land, to create 6,000 jobs, to increase the population about 2,000 residents, to develop tourism industry and to enhance the international status of Manchester. As a result, a large number of development projects have been put into practice.

Secondly, there is a perfect regional development plan in the Salford port area. In the functional aspects, the planning encouraged the mixed development of residential houses, offices, leisure and entertainment and other functions. In particular, the plan highlighted the potential possibility of the development of tourism in the waterfront area. In the early stage of the overall planning, the terminal areas were divided into the three parts: residential, office and leisure entertainment. It also focused on water, roads and ancillary facilities and public roads and landscape, trying to form a high quality waterfront environment, community space and the benefits of land development. (Council S C., 1985)

Thirdly, Manchester is a traditional industrial city in Britain. As measured by population, it is the third largest city in Britain ranking after London and Birmingham. Manchester has experienced the adjustment of industrial structure since the industrial revolution. During the period from 1961 to 1983, Manchester's total population was about 350 thousand, but manufacturing layoffs were more than 150 thousand. (Manchester City Council, 2008)

2.1.2 Consequences of transformation

The consequences of transformation in 1980s can also be presented in three aspects.

Firstly, the plan has supported the implementation of a number of major projects like the transformation of the central railway station to MEX - G Exhibition Center. Meanwhile, the plan also led to the formation of a continuous office and hotel building boom and a large number of high quality office buildings have been completed in this period. At the same time, the promotion of residential projects is also very smooth. According to some projects, it is attempted to transform the warehouses into apartments and the results are very successful. Some of these residential houses are for sale and others are served as affordable housing.

Secondly, non-office public projects are advancing slowly. Many public projects have had to take office buildings as a focus to balance the investment in cultural and recreational facilities. However, it is difficult for projects that do not match the development of the office buildings to attract investment.

Thirdly, the rise and development of service industry in Manchester has laid a profound foundation for the successful transformation of manufacturing industry and the renaissance. After the World War II, local economy of Manchester has been in the transition from an manufacturing economy to a service economy. With less manufacturing employment opportunities and more service employment opportunities, the city is gradually becoming a business, finance, insurance and transportation center in northwest Britain. 

 

 

2.2 Transformation in 1990

2.2.1 Content of transformation

In order to eliminate the impact of the booming incident as soon as possible and rebuild public confidence in Manchester, the local government and parliament named the central renewal area as the millennium area, setting up a public-private partnership in Manchester named Manchester Millennium Ltd., which was responsible for the establishment and management of the reconstruction strategy and the international collection of overall planning. The key of the planning is to restore and strengthen the status of the city retail centers, forming a diversified economic base at the center of the region and creating new urban spatial axis and moments by shifting part of the buildings. In the building strategy, plans were made to repair and protect the history of the destructed buildings and introduce modern architectures and innovative designs to form an exciting new image. In the public space, through the cross public path and the public open space, a more pedestrian space was formed by the integration of the streets, squares and the 24-hour areas in parks.

2.2.2 Consequences of Transformation

It takes six years to complete the recovery project in the urban center of Manchester City. Meanwhile, Lowry Projects in Salford quays area were completed in 2001, which had received wide praise, positioning this area’s great attraction and development advantages in the commercial office development and culture and entertainment.

By the time of the Commonwealth Games in 2002, the whole city had fully presented a new scene. At the same time, the development of digital industry in coastal water area was keen to capture the development of Manchester after the year of 2000, which has left a profound foundation for the great progress of the cultural and creative industry and the media industry.

During Manchester’s decades of industrial structure change, it directly reflects the emphasis from manufacturing industry to industrial structure to further rationalize the evolution path. Although the proportion of manufacturing industry in Manchester is still slightly higher than similar cities, it has a significant change. At the beginning of 1960s, the manufacturing industry accounted for approximately 70 percent of the city's total economic output, but now it accounts for only about 20%. Traditional steel, textiles and shipping departments are in recession and now the leading industrial sectors are financial services and business services. By the year of 1992, people in Manchester working in the service industry accounted for 84.2 percent of the total employment, while manufacturing employment accounted for only 11.1 percent of the total employment. (Manchester City Council, 2008)

2.3 Transformation in the 21stcentury

2.3.1 Content of Transformation

The fresh development orientation has named Manchester as the largest employment drive engine in the northwest region of England and the most important cultural and creative center in northern England. The core strategy of the regional development framework is to require the city to provide a unique, attractive and high quality center network, to strengthen regional identity and to provide basic services to the nearest residents. At the same time, the central area is divided into multiple special dice regions like different urban sub areas of business and finance, shopping, heritage, culture, livable communities, higher education and transportation services. The plan is intended to strengthen a multiple city center with global attraction. Planning attaches great importance to the impact on the environment, the city's average annual employment land and retail area of the supply, the average annual housing supply and housing density.

2.3.2 Consequences of Transformation

The consequences can be listed in three perspectives of space, economy and society.

In the first place, reshaped Manchester has become a vibrant and unique area, continuing to attract investors, residents and tourists from all over the world. Plenty of space for office provides a high level of business services and innovation environment; high quality residential areas inject vitality for redevelopment; museums, theatres, art galleries, concert halls, large public facilities, many small cafes, bars and shops demonstrate diversification of public and recreational facilities; large and small public space connected in series into a network and each space is unique.

In the second place, the transformation of Manchester for decades has shifted industrial structure emphasis from manufacturing to services. At the beginning of 1960s, manufacturing industry accounted for approximately 70 percent of the city's total economic output and now it accounts for only about 10 percent. (Manchester City Council, 2008) The traditional iron and steel, textiles and shipping departments have been replaced by financial and business services and other industries. Future advantage industries in Manchester include financial and professional services, banking and insurance industries, hotels and catering, transportation, education, health, and business services. However, retail and wholesale industry will further decline. Manchester's advantage is mainly reflected in business activities, which demonstrate the vitality and potentiality of Manchester in terms of the creative economy.

In the third place, Manchester urban population has dropped to a minimum of 390 thousand people by the end of the 20th century. But in the 21stcentury, with the emerging industry and the attractiveness of the old city, the center city population starts growing again.

With the adjustment of industrial structure, employment structure in Manchester has continued to change. Employment proportion of manufacturing industry, construction industry and retail trade continues to decline, but the proportion of finance, health care, education, innovation, tourism continues to rise.

From the above analysis, it can be inferred that Manchester has turned up with a brand new atmosphere and environment, which attract a large number of tourists and residents.

3. Analyzing economic effect of policies and governance

3.1 Creating a favorable environment for the development of city transformation

In the eighties of the 20th century, with Thatcher coming into power, Britain's economic policies transformed from planning to the market by the power of the Conservative Party. Thatcher pursuing the new liberalism policy tried to reduce the government's efforts to interfere in the free market, limit government planning act and offer deregulation of private investment. The new policies injected new vitality to industrial cities like Manchester and reversed the declining trend.

On the other hand, on the means of development, the central and local governments have adopted the peripheral suburban area development restrictions and actively promoted renewal of inner-city area communities, promoting the resources and attention flowing back to the fading areas of the old city.

 

3.2 Strong post-industrialization industrial policies

3.2.1 Upgrading the industrial structure

Manchester's industrial structure has transformed from an industrial economy to a service economy and from traditional industries to new industries. In the 1980s, the key effect of business oriented development was quite clear. Local officials in Manchester firmly seizes the business development opportunity, making the business services industry, regional retail service industry, financial service industry and aviation service industry become pioneers in the economic transformation in Manchester and replacing the original manufacturing industry, output and employment structure along with the rapidly changing, forming a post-industrialization trend. Manchester successfully gets rid of the label of the industrial city, becoming the business center of the city only second to London and the service center in northwest England.

3.2.2 Boosting emerging industries

By the time of 1990s and the 21st century, there is a consensus that Manchester needs to become a creative city. The government of Manchester has implemented a series of urban cultural revival plans and sustained cultural infrastructure constructions, promoting the rise of creative industry, media industry, sports industry, education industry, bio-medical industry and other industries through the drive for continuous culture and city marketing. Manchester has been regarded as a boost to the United Kingdom and Europe in the features of culture, creativity and tourism.

3.2.3 Real estate development orientation

A large number of lands in the center of Manchester are the core resources for development in the transformation of Manchester, which is also the foundation of real estate development. In the development of real estate industry, the local government in Manchester made full use of British liberal economic policies and macroeconomic situations. Through the guidance of the government and public investment guide, a large-scale of investment has been attracted to invest in the private sector, so as to realize the rapidly advancing of the urban renewal.

3.3 Economic development during the transition

Manchester has entered the era dominated by service industry and manufacturing industry. Finance services, communication services, creative media industry and aviation industry have not only become the core departments to stimulate economic growth in Manchester, but also conducive to Manchester to form a new knowledge-based economy.

In the perspective of finance services, Manchester is the second largest financial center in the United Kingdom, including banking, insurance, fund management, management consulting, construction and real estate. In 2003, the output value of financial and professional services in the Greater Manchester was 9.1 billion pounds, accounting for about 62 percent of the northwest region of financial service industry in the United Kingdom. In the year of 2004, industry practitioners have reached to 218 thousand, accounting for 59 percent of northwest employment population. (Manchester City Council, 2008)

In the perspective of communication services, Manchester area communication services include software services, information technology consulting industry, telecommunications and computer related service electronic components industry, and other ancillary services industry like including strategic consulting, project management, system design, e-commerce service, technology support and outsourcing services. With globalization and technical force, information service industry has greatly increased at an average annual rate of 10.4 percent growth. (Manchester City Council, 2008)

In the perspective of creative media industry, in the period of economic transformation in Manchester, the government’s insight of the creative industry is pretty astute. Nowadays, Manchester is the creative industry center in the northwest region of the UK, with many well-known institutions of higher education, culture and media production, driving the development of the local creative economy.

In the perspective of aviation industry, Manchester Airport is second largest airport ranking after Heathrow Airport in London. Aviation industry is extremely important to the Greater Manchester area, mainly because Manchester International Airport has promoting and sustaining function to the local economy. In 2003, the output value of Manchester International Airport was 620 million pounds. From the year of 1998 to 2003, the average annual growth rate was 7.8 percent, far more than average national increase about 2.6 percent in Britain. In 2004, the aviation service industry employees reached to about 13.7 thousand, accounting for 77 percent of total employees in northwest industry. (Manchester City Council, 2008)

4. Conclusion

Now Manchester has become a vigor city in the international community, which has set an example for other cities in the world. The local government has made correct decisions to transform the city in the periods of 1980s, 1990s and the 21st century with positive consequences. By different means and policies, Manchester is in a good order and these policies have been taken into effect in almost all areas. More importantly, the economy of Manchester has developed by leaps and bounds due to the effect of governance and related policies. It is believed that Manchester will have a brighter future.

Bibliography

Wikipedia. (2015), Manchester, Website.

Healey P. (1992), Rebui1ding the City: Propertyled Urban Regeneration,Chapman&Ha11.

Council S C. (1985), Salford Quays: The Development Plan for Sa1ford Docks, Salford City Council, Sa1ford.

Salford City Council. (2008), The Story of Sa1ford Quays.

Manchester City Council. (2008), Local Gross Value Added.

Tsenkova S. (2003), Urban Regeneration: Learning from the British Experience.Ca1gary: Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Ca1gary.

Cochrane, A. (2007), Understanding urban policy: a critical approach, Oxford: Blackwell

Edwards, C. and Imrie, R. (2015), The short guide to urban policy, Bristol: The Policy Press.

Cao Sheng and Tang Zilai. (2013), Transformation of Traditional British Industrial City: The Experience of Manchester, International City Planning Vol.28, No.6.

 

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