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The current situation, problems and development of China's social security system

2020-06-11 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 写作技巧

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- The current situation, problems and development of China's social security system,文章讲述自1949年新中国成立以来,即将建立社会保障体系。1951年2月26日,政府行政理事会颁布了《中华人民共和国劳动保险条例》(以下简称《保险条例》)。该法令标志着我国职工社会保险制度的初步建立,包括失业保险除外的养老,遗属,疾病,生育等,该规定适用于国有企业和部分集体企业。国家办公室工作人员也已经以颁布特别条例的形式逐步建立,三十多年来,我国颁布了许多有关法律法规,建立了适合计划经济时代的社会保障体系。

 

The current situation, problems and development of China's social security system

 

First, The establishment and development of China's social security system

The social security system was about to be established since New China was founded in 1949. On February 26, 1951, the government administration council promulgated “The People's Republic of China labor insurance regulations" (hereinafter referred to as”Insurance Regulations”). This promulgation marks preliminary establishment of employee social insurance system in our country, including pension, survivors, illness and maternity, except unemployment insurance. Such regulations are applicable to state-owned enterprises and some collective enterprises. At the same time, the social insurance system of the national office working personnel has also been gradually established in the form of special regulations promulgated. After more than 30 years, our country has issued many relevant laws and regulations and set up the social security system suitable for the planned economy era.

Since the reform and opening, our country started the reconstruction of the social security system. This process was synchronized with the country's economic system reform. Since the 1980s, the pilot reform of the social insurance system was carried out in some cities, and then across the country. After 20 years of efforts, China has established the social security system suitable for the market economy order. At present, the basic social security system includes two parts: one is the project fully supported by national finance. It includes the rescue of social vulnerable groups, the special care and placement of military personnel and their families, the helpless old young residue, disabled persons and the public, for a community service, social welfare and the completely belong to the category of national income redistribution, fully embodies the social justice; Two is the tripartite co-financing projects by employing unit, worker individual pay cost and properly supported by national assistance, including pension insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, industrial injury insurance and birth insurance. At present according to the social insurance law, pension insurance, medical insurance and unemployment insurance are for the tripartite joint payment by employing units, worker individuals and country. The employing units mainly pay for maternity insurance and employment injury insurance and country gives appropriate subsidies.)

Second, The main problems facing the current social security system

The establishment of social security system has played a positive role to protect the basic rights of citizens, maintain social stability and development of the socialist market economy and realize the social justice and fairness. At present, our country social security system is still facing many problems, mainly include:

1st, the covering area of social security

The coverage of social security directly affects the scope of the social security system. It directly relates to the social members that how many people will enjoy the rights of social security, and that how much the social security system can play. At present our country social security coverage is still relatively low. For example, in the five social insurances, the pension insurance is the largest number of people, but only 165.54 million people, and our country urban and rural employment for 737.4 million people [3], of which the first industry practitioners is equal to the sum of the second and the third industry practitioners (the first industry employs 368.7 million people, accounting for 50.0%; the second industry, 157.8 million (21.4%); the third industry of 210.9 million people, accounting for 28.6%. Source: http: //www.molss.gov.cn.).From the above number of social insurance and employers, social security coverage is still very low in our country. At present, the town enterprise worker, migrant workers, urban employment personnel, as well as many private enterprise personnel of flexible obtain employment most did not attend social insurance. However, the proportion of this employment parts is increasing year by year. Therefore, our country social security coverage is still relatively low if compared with the international, which can be only at the level of low-income countries.

2nd, Employment and unemployment insurance

Employment is vital to people's livelihood. Expanding employment relates to the overall situation of reform, development and stability. Over the next several years, the employment will become the biggest difficulty to influence the social development of our country. At present our country is mainly faced with dual pressure from urban and rural employment. It is estimated that now more than 9 millions of jobs can be created every year in our country, but more than 20 millions of jobseekers will compete for the position. By the end of March 2005, the national total of 8.32 million urban registered unemployed personnel, registered urban unemployment rate is 4.2% [1]. But if combined with practical personnel of unregistered unemployment, the rate may exceed 10%. In the next 10 years, there will also have more than 150 million - 200 million rural labor forces to shift to the non-agricultural industry and town. In addition, the re-employment problem of laid-off workers has become the focus of the current employment contradiction.

3rd, urban poverty population

Since China's reform and opening up while people's living standards improve, the social gap between rich and poor is widening. At present, China's per capita GDP has been over $1000 [2], but income gaps are rapidly expanding rather than being shortened. The Gink coefficient used for measuring income inequality has reached about 045 and remains high yet. 20% well-off families living in cities and towns owns more than 67% of the total financial assets. The differences of actual income and welfare between urban and rural areas are nearly 6 by 1, with an average of 20 years of revenue growth. At present, our country has established a security system of minimum livelihood for city dwellers.

The establishment of security system of minimum livelihood for city dwellers plays an important role to solve the urban poor life. But the minimum living security system still has some problems, such as capital source shortage and low security standards. The annual expenditure for basic living allowances is about 15 billion. The minimum living allowance per capita in each city vary from the highest 300 to the lowest less than 40, while the national per capita is 55. Scope of implementation is limited to urban low-income people, which were not including the vast rural poor.

4th, rural old-age security issues

Rural old-age security problem is also a difficulty in the current social security system construction. The problems of how to solve the rural pension will be a widespread issue. More than 800 million [4] farmers in our country, if the farmers' pension problem is not solved, it will be difficult to achieve the purpose of establishing social security and constitute a huge unsafe hidden danger to society. Before the 1980s rural economic system reform, the rural collective organizations took most of main responsibilities for peasants’ pensions. Then along with the land and income distribution after the disintegration of the old system, the responsibilities of supporting the elderly were again transferred to individual family. But as a result of system changes, the traditional family function of supporting the elderly is gradually weakened. It will be inevitable to establish old-age security system suitable for the current rural characteristics.

5th, social security management system

At present, the social security management system still exist many problems of scattered management, conflicting policies from different departments and failing to form a unified management system. Such as old-age security problems, employees of state-owned companies go to labor and social security department, civil servants go to the personnel department, and poverty groups go to civil administration department, which will be so serious for multiple management. Since many agencies perform the function of social insurance, it will be easily cause multiple management and the fragmented situations. Neither macro coordination nor overall balance is well enough, while it increases the management cost and hinders the social security reform process.

Conclusion

In conclusion from above, the social security system of our country is in constant development and progress, but the problems inside also cannot be underestimated. But the construction of the social security system is a process of long-term unremitting reform and cannot be accomplished shortly. The improvement of the social security system demands no delay, but it is yet not enough for just going faster. We should have a correct understanding of China's national conditions step by step and seek truth from facts to resolve our real problems by careful and comprehensive researches of reform routes. Only by establishing an improved social security system, a harmonious socialist society can be built; the problem of the establishment of the social security system can be truly solved. Thus it can play its role for development of our country's social security undertaking and for building social security system of socialism with Chinese characteristics in our country.

 

References:

[1] Feldstein M. Social security pension reform in China [J]. China Economic Review, 1999, 10(2): 99-107.

[2]Feldstein M, Liebman J. realizing the potential of China’s social security pension system [J]. China Economic Review, 2006, 17: 1-16.

[3]Leung J C B. Social security reforms in China: Issues and prospects [J]. International Journal of Social Welfare, 2003, 12(2): 73-85.

[4]Wang D. China's urban and rural old age security system: Challenges and options [J]. China & World Economy, 2006, 14(1): 102-116.

 

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