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Pacific Northwest

2020-06-06 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 留学资讯

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Pacific Northwest,文章讲述20世纪分别有1914年至1918年和1939-1945年的两次战争,对西北太平洋的经济产生了深远的影响。美国经济的主要部分,特别是农业和采矿业在1920年代暴跌,直到第二次世界大战才开始复苏。木材出口急剧下降,到1933年大萧条时期的1929年上半年,因为俄罗斯的竞争导致木材出口的减少。出口。由于俄勒冈州的产品价格低廉,农产品不值得继续生产。据估计,这三个州(爱达荷州,俄勒冈州和华盛顿州)的收入水平已降至四年前(1933年)的约55%(资料来源:第十九课:两次世界大战之间的经济和政治变化,1919-1939年) )。从1929年到1933年,俄勒冈州和华盛顿州,爱达荷州的失业率持续上升,尤其是对采矿业非常依赖的爱达荷州。农民去城市或移民工作。

 

Pacific Northwest

 

1. The effects of 20th century wars on the Pacific Northwest economy and people

There was two wars from 1914 to 1918 and 1939-1945 respectively in 20th century, which influenced the economy of Pacific Northwest deeply. Key parts of America economy especially farming and mining industry slumped in 1920s and it did not began to recover until the World War 2. Lumber exports decrease dramatically to half of 1929 in 1933 during the Great Depression because competition of Russia which led to the decrease of exports. Agricultural products was not worth continuing because of the low price of the products in Oregon. According to estimation, income levels across the three states (Idaho, Oregon and Washington) had declined to about 55% of what they had been four years earlier in 1933(Source: Lesson Nineteen: Economic and Political Change between the Wars, 1919-1939). The unemployment rate kept rising in Idaho from 1929 to 1933, Oregon and Washington, especially to Idaho who depended a lot on mining. Farmers went to cities or immigrated for works. Business man suffered from job closing because of the great depression. Although unemployment rate was rather high but the federally funded projects like Columbia Basin project can solve part of the problems of employment in Pacific Northwest. People experience a hardship in the 20th century wars but it actually help the economy recovery of Pacific Northwest in historic perspective because the wars the accelerate changes like the relationship between federal government and states, the change of Republican president into Democrats in 1930s and more federal funded public investments.

 

2. 20th conservation efforts in the Pacific Northwest

In 1920s, government began to cut expenditure under the control of republics. Higher education administration like the University of Washington ‘s autonomy was restrained. Besides, the objection toward the “outsiders” like immigrants of different areas and religions came to more obvious, especially during the Great Depression when unemployment rate was high, fearing of “job stolen” aggravated the objections. But with the change of the Republican into Democratic candidate for president who played an extremely important role in conservation effort, things began to different, lots of campaigns was launched. Supporting the building of dams, and infrastructures instead of mining and logging contributed a lot to the conservation in the Pacific Northwest. With the proceeding of the Columbia Basin Project, other notable efforts such as Civilian Conservation Corps programs in parks and forests, which focused on the forest protection and reasonable cut-down of tree, wildlife protection that aiming the diversity of species in the earth, irrigation projects for the aim for standardization and productive output, and creation of Olympic National Park in 1938 was conducted accordingly. All those conservative efforts showed the big influence of federal government on the Pacific Northwest and created lots of job for the rescue of the depression, which finally speed up the economy development.

 

3. PNW immigration issues- domestic and international, 1880s-present

The diversity of people of PNW seems to become a culture of its unique. Lots of immigrants such as African-Americans, Asians immigrated to PNW since 1880s when

African Americans were recruited to the state by the employers with the development of mining in Idaho. They immigrated to PNW for the economic gains, social status, political presentations, in general, for opportunities. Because of their cheaper labor, urban areas became their destinations when there were opportunity limits. Compared with other international regions, it was obvious that PNW could offer more opportunities to immigrant groups, which attracted lots of immigrants. However, discriminatory barriers has always been a problem since the immigrants came to PNW. They was refused to give the equal opportunities as the white people did, and they were also thought as a threat to local labor organizations. When more and more immigrants came to PNW, the numbers of blacks came to 1000 in 1890. In the 1900, with the urbanization of the PNW, more immigrants were employed in cities. But discrimination kept going and immigrants were still in the bottom of the societies. The world wars gave more job opportunities to immigrants and the population booms in the 20th although discouraging of the immigrants in the mainstream society. Today, More and more immigrants join in the middle class and the situation not only economy but social status of immigrants improves, but there still a long way toward equality.

 

4. Social changes in the Pacific Northwest. 1945 to present.

With the end of the Second War in 1945 and America became a victorious nation and began its competition with the Russia in “cold” way which named the Cold War from 1946 to 1990, thus those great social changes have an intimate relationship with the Cold War. The Pacific Northwest was not an exception and a good example of those changes. In general, social changes was broaden in three states, Idaho, Oregon and Washington because of the mobilization for the war. More people was employed in defense-related instead of extractive industries, more technologically oriented industries like aerocraft and manufacture industries began to appear although the development degree varied in those three states. Washington was a special of the three where Boeing became a backbone of its economy and compared the other two states, Washington focused more on manufacture and on service industries. Additionally, the changes happened in education like the University of Washington was changed into a major, public, research universities. More immigrants came to PNW for opportunities. In general, it is a leap period for the PNW’s prosperity. Today, discrimination is not as bad as it was, people can get more opportunities for their dreams and tourisms industry become a new brand of PNW.

 

 

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