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Legislation—a Better Way to Solve Dilemma of Euthanasia

2020-06-01 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 留学资讯

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Legislation—a Better Way to Solve Dilemma of Euthanasia ,本文讲述安乐死和医生协助自杀的争议使一些人广为人知,杰克·科沃尔基安博士就是其中之一。他是一位居住在密歇根州的退休医生,从1990年至1998年,他已经帮助了150多名患者结束生命。与此同时,他四次被指控犯有谋杀罪,最终无罪。他以公开倡导末期患者通过医生协助自杀的死亡权而闻名,他通常以绰号死亡博士而闻名,并且著名地说道:死亡不是犯罪。 (Wells 329)尽管对杰克的举动存在争议,但他还是以自己的方式强迫安乐死辩护的过程。然而,这位传奇医生因谋杀而入狱。他的生活起起落落证明了医生协助自杀的争议。为了解决所有辩论,安乐死立法应是解决局势中实际困境的适当方法。作为还必须遭受我们壁橱人员死亡的学生,有必要在面对他们时采取行动。由于报废立法可以帮助我们和内在冲突的医生,因此我们可以找到一个俱乐部来推动其立法进程。

Legislation—a Better Way to Solve Dilemma of Euthanasia

The controversy of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide make some people well-known and Dr. Jack Kevorkian is one. He is a retired doctor living in Michigan, who has helped more than one hundred and fifty patients end their lives from 1990 to 1998. At the same time, he was accused as murder four times and ended up with being not guilty. Best known for publicly championing a terminal patient's right to die via physician-assisted suicide, he was often known by the nickname "Dr. Death", and famously said, "Dying is not a crime". (Wells 329) Despite the controversy discussion about the action of Jack, he compelled the process of euthanasia justification through his own manners. However, this legendary doctor ended up in jail because of murder. His ups and downs of life demonstrate the controversy of physician-assisted suicide. In order to settle down all debates, legislation for euthanasia should be a proper way to solve the practical dilemmas in the situation. As students who also have to suffer the death of our closet people, it is necessary to take actions when facing them. Since the legislation of end-of-life can help us and doctors with inner conflicts, we can found a club to compel its process of legislation.

Before more discussion about it, people might review some basic concepts of this field. Euthanasia is the most controversy method of a suicide since others, especially physicians, involve in it. It is originated from a Greek word, εὐθανασία, which is a combination of two words, well and death. The historian Suetonius first used the term "euthanasia" to describe how the Emperor Augustus, "dying quickly and without suffering in the arms of his wife, Livia, experienced the 'euthanasia' he had wished for."(Philippe) Euthanasia can be sorted into different types, including voluntary, non-voluntary and involuntary. Non-voluntary euthanasia is illegal in all countries because of the violation of patients’ willingness, while involuntary euthanasia is might considered murder for physicians rely on the opinions of patients’ relatives or other conditions to make their decision. Euthanasia is the most active area of research in contemporary bioethics. (Borry 240) Physician-assisted suicide, is usually happening in voluntary or non-voluntary euthanasia and debated by researchers. It begins acceptable step by step and is sometimes reasonable from a rational viewpoint.

The physician-assisted suicide, actually, could also be categorized in different ways. According to the goals of American euthanasia movement (Dowbiggin), a passive euthanasia is stopping the treatment following the volition of patients in order to release the pain of these patients and a positive euthanasia is accelerating the death of patient by offering poison following the requirement of the patients. The whole society debates for the evaluation of it. Opposite words come from human emotion as well as concern about abuse, whereas supporters claim their worldly persuasions, which are related to medical cost, the relatives’ pressures and burden. From a general consideration, supporters gain the upper hand and have a tendency to justify it. Legislation is a better way to balance the opposite and sustaining.

The supporters have appeared in large scale from mid-twenty-century. An ideological trend stimulates people to claim their death right after the World War two. Black people’s right movement, new left movement, feminist movement and anti-tradition movement shake conservatism of American in 1950s. It even impacts the ideology and policy of America. Scholars’ inclination also dominates the trend among American. John Rawls holds an ultimate freedom of society in his A Theory of Justice and regards it as the essential goodness: Free only to freedom's sake is limited. (Rawls) A political scientist, Ronald Dworkin, also makes his point that a physician-assisted suicide should be legalized as well as being admitted by the constitution. People have the right protected by the constitution to make a serious decision which is not intervened by the court, legislating system and other willingness. (Jones) Facing the advance of technology, there will be more reasons for us to set a regulation. Modern medical technology has a revolutionary improvement so that people can extend their lives and change their methods of death. The increase of medical fee accompanies this progress. The application of new antibiotic drugs, CT and transplanting of human organ makes American extend the life of a patient like the god for several months, years and even tens of years. Modern technologies give people an illusion about opening the door of immortality. (Classen) These methods change the meaning of a traditional death and transform a personal death into a non-natural accident. Medical techniques lead to the appearance of new dying ways. The treatment intending to have patients live longer contributes to two serious results: the patients and their relatives lose the right to choose the death or treatment for medical system’s enforcement; patients are sacrificed for the profits of the medical system. In 1980, later period patients, only five percent of American patients, spend about thirty-five percent medical fee of the federal government.(Hillyard) People begin to realize that doctors are equal to bloodsuckers. In this circumstance, it is necessary to set a regulating system by which the government solves the huge cost in medical area and people should rely on the law. Legislation can release the collision between patients and hospitals or other medical systems.

Founding a student club is what we can do to support the legislating process. All students who participate in our activities can be the enthusiasts for physician-assisted suicide, but they stay in an emotional recognition. Then students will be organized to have discussions and debates guided by an adviser. All their questions and conflicts have stayed in the minds of all people. These dilemmas include the possibility of abuse or other by-products, the ethical codes of legislation and limit principles. The cost and benefits of the process might be also involved in the discussion. After several debates, students will have their own idea and the documents summarizing these ideas will be spread to citizens by them. This community will be the pioneer of Purdue University in the compelling-legislation movement. Since they have participated the discussions and learned the legislating process carefully, they can claim the basic principles of this document and advertise for their ideas. The involvement of students and their announcement can help people release their worry about abuse and other by-products of physician-assisted suicide. Students will tell their surroundings that laws will guarantee a protecting mechanism in order to set a protection for the people with incurable diseases and keep leaks from them. Laws regulate the qualification of doctors who apply assisted suicides, qualification of the applicators who intend to end their lives and justice of the procedure. For example, the principle sets the condition in which doctors are allowed to remove devices of keeping life. It can also limit the actions of keeping life in supplying nutrient solution and water. Furthermore, patients must suffer in the later period of their life if they have full capacity. There are also some warranted codes applied such as follow the permission of patients, doctors and hospitals. (McCarthy 1543) All of these restrict abused actions after the legislation of a physician-assisted suicide.

At the same time, the community can invite famous experts to give lectures to spread and educate, not only the members of Purdue University, but also physicians, patients and their relatives. They will be the main force of the legislating movement. Purdue University has done it very well. It invited Dr. Cross, the Vice president of Medical Professional Services at Nathan Adelson Hospice, to give the speech about physicians on end of life care about pain management. It is a good beginning of regulation of physician-assisted suicide. She talked about the cooperation of nociceptive and neuropathic pain and so on in order to help physicians avoid mistakes. Patients and their relatives can also have more knowledge when making a choice. The. This kind of lectures propel the progress of euthanasia’s regulation and standardization. As a result, patients will know more about their own right instead of following doctors’ advice blindly. Doctors also do not need to worry about their lawsuit caused by an assisted suicide. The cost for later life people can decline for their rational choices. All must be better for an insurance and peoples would like to vote for building a legislating system.

Viewing all the benefits of an end-of life advocacy club, students should take actions to realize it in order pull the process of physician-assisted suicide legislation.

Reference

Borry P, Schotsmans P, Dierickx K (April 2006). "Empirical research in bioethical journals. A quantitative analysis". J Med Ethics 32 (4): 240–5. doi:10.1136/jme.2004.011478. PMC 2565792. PMID 16574880.

Classen, Steven D., et al. "Elizabeth Atwood Gailey, Write to Death: News framing of the Right to Die Conflict, from Quinlan’s Coma to Kevorkian’s Conviction, Praeger Publishers, 2003. Pablo J. Boczkowski, Digitizing the News: Innovation in Online Newspapers, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004."

Dowbiggin, Ian. "A merciful end: The euthanasia movement in modern America." (2003).

Jones, Robert Patrick. Liberalism's Troubled Search for Equality: Religion and Cultural Bias in the Oregon Physician-assisted Suicide Debates. Robert P. Jones, 2007.

Hillyard, Daniel, and John Dombrink. Dying right: The death with dignity movement. Routledge, 2001.

McCarthy, Michael. "Oregon death with dignity act." The Lancet 342.8886 (1993): 1543-1544.

Rawls, John. A theory of justice. Harvard university press, 1999.

Rosenfeld, Barry. Assisted suicide and the right to die: The interface of social science, public policy, and medical ethics. American Psychological Association, 2004.

Philippe Letellier, chapter: History and definition of a Word, in Euthanasia: Ethical and human aspects By Council of Europe

Wells, Samuel; Quash, Ben (2010). Introducing Christian Ethics. John Wiley and Sons. p. 329. ISBN 978-1-4051-5276-1.

 

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